Henry Gray (18251861). Anatomy of the Human Body. 1918.
If the fulcrum rests on the earth the power must either directly or indirectly push from the earth or be attached to the earth either by gravity or otherwise if it pulls toward the earth. If the power were attached to the weight no lever action could be obtained.
There are no levers of the II Class represented in the body.
2. Development of the Muscles
Both the cross-striated and smooth muscles, with the exception of a few that are of ectodermal origin, arise from the mesoderm. The intrinsic muscles of the trunk are derived from the myotomes while the muscles of the head and limbs differentiate directly from the mesoderm.
The Myotomic Muscles.The intrinsic muscles of the trunk which are derived directly from the myotomes are conveniently treated in two groups, the deep muscles of the back and the thoraco-abdominal muscles.
The deep muscles of the back extend from the sacral to the occipital region and vary much in length and size. They act chiefly on the vertebral column. The shorter muscles, such as the Interspinales, Intertransversarii, the deeper layers of the Multifidus, the Rotatores, Levatores costarum, Obliquus capitis inferior, Obliquus capitis superior and Rectus capitis posterior minor which extend between adjoining vertebræ, retain the primitive segmentation of the myotomes. Other muscles, such as the Splenius capitis, Splenius cervicis, Sacrospinalis, Semispinalis, Multifidus, Iliocostalis, Longissimus, Spinales, Semispinales, and Rectus capitis posterior major, which extend over several vertebræ, are formed by the fusion of successive myotomes and the splitting into longitudinal columns.
The fascia lumbo-dorsalis develops between the true myotomic muscles and the more superficial ones which migrate over the back such as the Trapezius, Rhomboideus, and Latissimus.
The anterior vertebral muscles, the Longus colli, Longus capitis, Rectus capitis anterior and Rectus capitis lateralis are derived from the ventral part of the cervical myotomes as are probably also the Scaleni.
The thoraco-abdominal muscles arise through the ventral extension of the thoracic myotomes into the body wall. This process takes place coincident with the ventral extension of the ribs. In the thoracic region the primitive myotomic segments still persist as the intercostal muscles, but over the abdomen these ventral myotomic processes fuse into a sheet which splits in various ways to form the Rectus, the Obliquus externus and internus, and the Transversalis. Such muscles as the Pectoralis major and minor and the Serratus anterior do not belong to the above group.
The Ventrolateral Muscles of the Neck.The intrinsic muscles of the tongue, the Infrahyoid muscles and the diaphragm are derived from a more or less continuous premuscle mass which extends on each side from the tongue into the lateral region of the upper half of the neck and into it early extend the hypoglossal and branches of the upper cervical nerves. The two halves which form the Infrahyoid muscles and the diaphragm are at first widely separated from each other by the heart. As the latter descends into the thorax the diaphragmatic portion of each lateral mass is carried with its nerve down into the thorax and the laterally placed Infrahyoid muscles move toward the midventral line of the neck.
Muscles of the Shoulder Girdle and Arm.The Trapezius and Sternocleidomastoideus arise from a common premuscle mass in the occipital region just caudal to the last branchial arch; as the mass increases in size it spreads downward to the shoulder girdle to which it later becomes attached. It also spreads backward and downward to the spinous processes, gaining attachment at a still later period.