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Henry Gray (1825–1861).  Anatomy of the Human Body.  1918.
 
into the oblique line on the lamina of the thyroid cartilage. This muscle is in close contact with its fellow at the lower part of the neck, but diverges somewhat as it ascends; it is occasionally traversed by a transverse or oblique tendinous inscription.

Variations.—Doubling; absence; accessory slips to Thyreohyoideus, Inferior constrictor, or carotid sheath.
  The Thyreohyoideus (Thyrohyoid muscle) is a small, quadrilateral muscle appearing like an upward continuation of the Sternothyreoideus. It arises from the oblique line on the lamina of the thyroid cartilage, and is inserted into the lower border of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone.
  The Omohyoideus (Omohyoid muscle) consists of two fleshy bellies united by a central tendon. It arises from the upper border of the scapula, and occasionally from the superior transverse ligament which crosses the scapular notch, its extent of attachment to the scapula varying from a few millimetres to 2.5 cm. From this origin, the inferior belly forms a flat, narrow fasciculus, which inclines forward and slightly upward across the lower part of the neck, being bound down to the clavicle by a fibrous expansion; it then passes behind the Sternocleidomastoideus, becomes tendinous and changes its direction, forming an obtuse angle. It ends in the superior belly, which passes almost vertically upward, close to the lateral border of the Sternohyoideus, to be inserted into the lower border of the body of the hyoid bone, lateral to the insertion of the Sternohyoideus. The central tendon of this muscle varies much in length and form, and is held in position by a process of the deep cervical fascia, which sheaths it, and is prolonged down to be attached to the clavicle and first rib; it is by this means that the angular form of the muscle is maintained.

Variations.—Doubling; absence; origin from clavicle; absence or doubling of either belly.
  The inferior belly of the Omohyoideus divides the posterior triangle of the neck into an upper or occipital triangle and a lower or subclavian triangle, while its superior belly divides the anterior triangle into an upper or carotid triangle and a lower or muscular triangle.

Nerves.—The Infrahyoid muscles are supplied by branches from the first three cervical nerves. From the first two nerves the branch joins the hypoglossal trunk, runs with it some distance, and sends off a branch to the Thyreohyoideus; it then leaves the hypoglossal to form the descendens hypoglossi and unites with the communicantes cervicalis from the second and third cervical nerves to form the ansa hypoglossi from which nerves pass to the other Infrahyoid muscles.

Actions.—These muscles depress the larynx and hyoid bone, after they have been drawn up with the pharynx in the act of deglutition. The Omohyoidei not only depress the hyoid bone, but carry it backward and to one or the other side. They are concerned especially in prolonged inspiratory efforts; for by rendering the lower part of the cervical fascia tense they lessen the inward suction of the soft parts, which would otherwise compress the great vessels and the apices of the lungs. The Thyreohyoideus may act as an elevator of the thyroid cartilage, when the hyoid bone ascends, drawing the thyroid cartilage up behind the hyoid bone. The Sternothyreoideus acts as a depressor of the thyroid cartilage.
 
5d. The Anterior Vertebral Muscles
 
  The anterior vertebral muscles (Fig. 387). are:
Longus colli.
Rectus capitis anterior.
Longus capitis.
Rectus capitis lateralis.
  The Longus colli is situated on the anterior surface of the vertebral column, between the atlas and the third thoracic vertebra. It is broad in the middle, narrow and pointed at either end, and consists of three portions, a superior oblique, an inferior oblique, and a vertical. The superior oblique portion arises from the anterior tubercles of the transverse processes of the third, fourth, and fifth cervical vertebræ and, ascending obliquely with a medial inclination, is inserted by a narrow

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