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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Austria
 
Flag of Austria                                Map of Austria
 
Background:Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade unification with Germany. A constitutional law that same year declared the country's "perpetual neutrality" as a condition for Soviet military withdrawal. The Soviet Union's collapse in 1991 and Austria's entry into the European Union in 1995 have altered the meaning of this neutrality. A prosperous, democratic country, Austria entered the EU Economic Monetary Union in 1999.
  
Geography
  
Location:Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia
Geographic coordinates:47 20 N, 13 20 E
Map references:Europe
Area:total: 83,870 sq km
land: 82,444 sq km
water: 1,426 sq km
Area—comparative:slightly smaller than Maine
Land boundaries:total: 2,562 km
border countries: Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366 km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 35 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 330 km, Switzerland 164 km
Coastline:0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:none (landlocked)
Climate:temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain and some snow in lowlands and snow in mountains; moderate summers with occasional showers
Terrain:in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m
highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m
Natural resources:oil, coal, lignite, timber, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, magnesite, tungsten, graphite, salt, hydropower
Land use:arable land: 16.59%
permanent crops: 0.85%
other: 82.56% (2005)
Irrigated land:40 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:84 cu km (2005)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 3.67 cu km/yr (35%/64%/1%)
per capita: 448 cu m/yr (1999)
Natural hazards:landslides; avalanches; earthquakes
Environment—current issues:some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe
Environment—international agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography—note:landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere
  
People
  
Population:8,199,783 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 15.1% (male 633,375/female 603,459)
15-64 years: 67.5% (male 2,781,291/female 2,749,539)
65 years and over: 17.5% (male 585,747/female 846,372) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 41.3 years
male: 40.2 years
female: 42.4 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:0.077% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:8.69 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:9.84 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:1.91 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.012 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.692 male(s)/female
total population: 0.953 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 4.54 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 5.56 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.47 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 79.21 years
male: 76.32 years
female: 82.26 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:1.37 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:0.3% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:10,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:less than 100 (2003 est.)
Nationality:noun: Austrian(s)
adjective: Austrian
Ethnic groups:Austrians 91.1%, former Yugoslavs 4% (includes Croatians, Slovenes, Serbs, and Bosniaks), Turks 1.6%, German 0.9%, other or unspecified 2.4% (2001 census)
Religions:Roman Catholic 73.6%, Protestant 4.7%, Muslim 4.2%, other 3.5%, unspecified 2%, none 12% (2001 census)
Languages:German (official nationwide) 88.6%, Turkish 2.3%, Serbian 2.2%, Croatian (official in Burgenland) 1.6%, other (includes Slovene,official in Carinthia, and Hungarian, official in Burgenland) 5.3% (2001 census)
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: NA
female: NA
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Austria
conventional short form: Austria
local long form: Republik Oesterreich
local short form: Oesterreich
Government type:federal republic
Capital:name: Vienna
geographic coordinates: 48 12 N, 16 22 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:9 states (Bundeslaender, singular - Bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten (Carinthia), Niederoesterreich (Lower Austria), Oberoesterreich (Upper Austria), Salzburg, Steiermark (Styria), Tirol (Tyrol), Vorarlberg, Wien (Vienna)
Independence:976 (Margravate of Austria established); 17 September 1156 (Duchy of Austria founded); 11 August 1804 (Austrian Empire proclaimed); 12 November 1918 (republic proclaimed)
National holiday:National Day, 26 October (1955); note - commemorates the passage of the law on permanent neutrality
Constitution:1920; revised 1929; reinstated 1 May 1945; note - during the period 1 May 1934-1 May 1945 there was a fascist (corporative) constitution in place
Legal system:civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court; separate administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:16 years of age; universal; note - reduced from 18 years of age in 2007
Executive branch:chief of state: President Heinz FISCHER (SPOe) (since 8 July 2004)
head of government: Chancellor Alfred GUSENBAUER (SPOe) (since 11 January 2007); Vice Chancellor Wilhelm MOLTERER (OeVP) (since 11 January 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor
elections: president elected by direct popular vote for a six-year term (eligible for a second term); presidential election last held 25 April 2004 (next to be held in April 2010); chancellor formally chosen by the president but determined by the coalition parties forming a parliamentary majority; vice chancellor chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor
election results: Heinz FISCHER elected president; percent of vote - Heinz FISCHER 52.4%, Benita FERRERO-WALDNER 47.6%
note: government coalition - SPOe and OeVP
Legislative branch:bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of Federal Council or Bundesrat (62 seats; members chosen by state parliaments with each state receiving 3 to 12 members according to its population; to serve a five- or six-year term) and the National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: National Council - last held 1 October 2006 (next scheduled for the fall of 2010)
election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - SPOe 35.3%, OeVP 34.3%, Greens 11.1%, FPOe 11.0%, BZOe 4.1%, other 4.2%; seats by party - SPOe 68, OeVP 66, Greens 21, FPOe 21, BZOe 7
Judicial branch:Supreme Judicial Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgerichtshof
Political parties and leaders:Alliance for the Future of Austria or BZOe [Peter WESTENTHALER]; Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Wilhelm MOLTERER]; Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Heinz Christian STRACHE]; Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Alfred GUSENBAUER]; The Greens [Alexander VAN DER BELLEN]
Political pressure groups and leaders:Austrian Trade Union Federation (nominally independent but primarily Social Democratic) or OeGB; Federal Economic Chamber; OeVP-oriented Association of Austrian Industrialists or IV; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action; three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business, labor, and farmers and other non-government organizations in the areas of environment and human rights
International organization participation:ACCT (observer), ADB (nonregional members), AfDB, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G- 9, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM (guest), NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, SECI (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNOMIG, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU (observer), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Eva NOWOTNY
chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035
telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700
FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Scott KILNER
embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1090, Vienna
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [43] (1) 31339-0
FAX: [43] (1) 3100682
Flag description:three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:Austria, with its well-developed market economy and high standard of living, is closely tied to other EU economies, especially Germany's. The Austrian economy also benefits greatly from strong commercial relations, especially in the banking and insurance sectors, with central, eastern, and southeastern Europe. The economy features a large service sector, a sound industrial sector, and a small, but highly developed agricultural sector. Membership in the EU has drawn an influx of foreign investors attracted by Austria's access to the single European market and proximity to the new EU economies. The outgoing government has successfully pursued a comprehensive economic reform program, aimed at streamlining government and creating a more competitive business environment, further strengthening Austria's attractiveness as an investment location. It has implemented effective pension reforms; however, lower taxes in 2005-06 led to a small budget deficit in 2006 and 2007. Boosted by strong exports, growth nevertheless reached 3.3% in both 2006 and 2007, although the economy may slow in 2008 because of the strong euro, high oil prices, and problems in international financial markets. To meet increased competition - especially from new EU members and Central European countries - Austria will need to continue restructuring, emphasizing knowledge-based sectors of the economy, and encouraging greater labor flexibility and greater labor participation by its aging population.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$319.7 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$366.7 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:3.3% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$39,000 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 1.6%
industry: 30.4%
services: 67.3% (2007 est.)
Labor force:3.56 million (2007 est.)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 3%
industry: 27%
services: 70% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate:4.3% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:5.9% (2004)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 22.5% (2004)
Distribution of family income—Gini index:26 (2005)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):1.9% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):21.4% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:revenues: $176.4 billion
expenditures: $178.3 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:61% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture—products:grains, potatoes, sugar beets, wine, fruit; dairy products, cattle, pigs, poultry; lumber
Industries:construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, metals, chemicals, lumber and wood processing, paper and paperboard, communications equipment, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:2.5% (2007 est.)
Electricity—production:61.02 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity—consumption:60.25 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity—exports:17.73 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity—imports:20.4 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Oil—production:23,320 bbl/day (2005)
Oil—consumption:295,100 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—exports:34,680 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—imports:157,500 bbl/day (2005)
Oil—proved reserves:62 million bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:1.57 billion cu m (2005)
Natural gas—consumption:9.217 billion cu m (2005)
Natural gas—exports:936.1 million cu m (2005)
Natural gas—imports:9.063 billion cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:14.39 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:$12.61 billion (2007 est.)
Exports:$158.3 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports—commodities:machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, paper and paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, foodstuffs
Exports—partners:Germany 30.2%, Italy 9%, US 5.8%, Switzerland 4.7% (2006)
Imports:$157.4 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports—commodities:machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal goods, oil and oil products; foodstuffs
Imports—partners:Germany 45.5%, Italy 7%, Switzerland 4.5%, Netherlands 4.1% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$12.91 billion (2006 est.)
Debt—external:$752.5 billion (30 June 2007)
Stock of direct foreign investment—at home:$66.32 billion (2006 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment—abroad:$74.89 billion (2006 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:$126.3 billion (2005)
Economic aid—donor:ODA, $681 million (2004)
Currency (code):euro (EUR)
note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries
Exchange rates:euros per US dollar - 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003)
Fiscal year:calendar year
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:3.564 million (2006)
Telephones—mobile cellular:9.255 million (2006)
Telephone system:general assessment: highly developed and efficient
domestic: fixed-line subscribership has been in decline since the mid-1990s with mobile-cellular subscribership elipsing it by the late 1990s; the fiber-optic net is very extensive; all telephone applications and Internet services are available
international: country code - 43; satellite earth stations - 15; in addition, there are about 600 VSATs (very small aperture terminals) (2007)
Radio broadcast stations:AM 2, FM 65 (plus several hundred repeaters), shortwave 1 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:10 (plus more than 1,000 repeaters) (2001)
Internet country code:.at
Internet hosts:2.427 million (2007)
Internet users:4.2 million (2006)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:55 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 25
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 15 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 30
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 26 (2007)
Heliports:1 (2007)
Pipelines:gas 2,722 km; oil 663 km; refined products 157 km (2007)
Railways:total: 6,383 km
standard gauge: 5,924 km 1.435-m gauge (3,772 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 371 km 1.000-m gauge; 88 km 0.760-m gauge (25 km electrified) (2006)
Roadways:total: 133,718 km
paved: 133,718 km (includes 1,677 km of expressways) (2003)
Waterways:358 km (2007)
Merchant marine:total: 7 ships (1000 GRT or over) 31,705 GRT/40,627 DWT
by type: cargo 5, container 2
foreign-owned: 2 (Netherlands 2)
registered in other countries: 4 (Cyprus 1, Malta 1, St Vincent and The Grenadines 2) (2007)
Ports and terminals:Enns, Krems, Linz, Vienna
  
Military
  
Military branches:Land Forces (KdoLdSK), Air Forces (KdoLuSK)
Military service age and obligation:18-35 years of age for compulsory military service; 16 years of age for male or female voluntary service; service obligation 7 months of training, followed by an 8-year reserve obligation (2006)
Manpower available for military service:males age 18-49: 1,914,800
females age 18-49: 1,870,134 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 18-49: 1,550,441
females age 18-49: 1,515,365 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:males age 18-49: 48,967
females age 18-49: 46,633 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:0.9% (2005 est.)
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:in 2006, Austrian public protests for the Czech Republic to close the Temelin nuclear power plant resulted in a parliamentary motion threatening international legal action
Illicit drugs:transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; increasing consumption of European-produced synthetic drugs

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