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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Costa Rica
 
Flag of Costa Rica                                Map of Costa Rica
 
Background:Although explored by the Spanish early in the 16th century, initial attempts at colonizing Costa Rica proved unsuccessful due to a combination of factors, including: disease from mosquito-infested swamps, brutal heat, resistance by natives, and pirate raids. It was not until 1563 that a permanent settlement of Cartago was established in the cooler, fertile central highlands. The area remained a colony for some two and a half centuries. In 1821, Costa Rica became one of several Central American provinces that jointly declared their independence from Spain. Two years later it joined the United Provinces of Central America, but this federation disintegrated in 1838, at which time Costa Rica proclaimed its sovereignty and independence. Since the late 19th century, only two brief periods of violence have marred the country's democratic development. Although it still maintains a large agricultural sector, Costa Rica has expanded its economy to include strong technology and tourism industries. The standard of living is relatively high. Land ownership is widespread.
  
Geography
  
Location:Central America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Nicaragua and Panama
Geographic coordinates:10 00 N, 84 00 W
Map references:Central America and the Caribbean
Area:total: 51,100 sq km
land: 50,660 sq km
water: 440 sq km
note: includes Isla del Coco
Area—comparative:slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries:total: 639 km
border countries: Nicaragua 309 km, Panama 330 km
Coastline:1,290 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
Climate:tropical and subtropical; dry season (December to April); rainy season (May to November); cooler in highlands
Terrain:coastal plains separated by rugged mountains including over 100 volcanic cones, of which several are major volcanoes
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Cerro Chirripo 3,810 m
Natural resources:hydropower
Land use:arable land: 4.4%
permanent crops: 5.87%
other: 89.73% (2005)
Irrigated land:1,080 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:112.4 cu km (2000)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 2.68 cu km/yr (29%/17%/53%)
per capita: 619 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:occasional earthquakes, hurricanes along Atlantic coast; frequent flooding of lowlands at onset of rainy season and landslides; active volcanoes
Environment—current issues:deforestation and land use change, largely a result of the clearing of land for cattle ranching and agriculture; soil erosion; coastal marine pollution; fisheries protection; solid waste management; air pollution
Environment—international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
Geography—note:four volcanoes, two of them active, rise near the capital of San Jose in the center of the country; one of the volcanoes, Irazu, erupted destructively in 1963-65
  
People
  
Population:4,133,884 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 27.8% (male 587,395/female 560,408)
15-64 years: 66.4% (male 1,388,114/female 1,357,157)
65 years and over: 5.8% (male 111,758/female 129,052) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 26.8 years
male: 26.3 years
female: 27.2 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:1.412% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:18.02 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:4.39 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:0.48 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.048 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.023 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.866 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 9.45 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 10.32 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 8.53 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 77.21 years
male: 74.61 years
female: 79.94 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:2.21 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:0.6% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:12,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:900 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
vectorborne diseases: dengue fever (2008)
Nationality:noun: Costa Rican(s)
adjective: Costa Rican
Ethnic groups:white (including mestizo) 94%, black 3%, Amerindian 1%, Chinese 1%, other 1%
Religions:Roman Catholic 76.3%, Evangelical 13.7%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.3%, other Protestant 0.7%, other 4.8%, none 3.2%
Languages:Spanish (official), English
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96%
male: 95.9%
female: 96.1% (2003 est.)
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Costa Rica
conventional short form: Costa Rica
local long form: Republica de Costa Rica
local short form: Costa Rica
Government type:democratic republic
Capital:name: San Jose
geographic coordinates: 9 56 N, 84 05 W
time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:7 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Alajuela, Cartago, Guanacaste, Heredia, Limon, Puntarenas, San Jose
Independence:15 September 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday:Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Constitution:7 November 1949
Legal system:based on Spanish civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court; has accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:chief of state: President Oscar ARIAS Sanchez (since 8 May 2006); First Vice President Laura CHINCHILLA (since 8 May 2006); Second Vice President (vacant); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Oscar ARIAS Sanchez (since 8 May 2006); First Vice President Laura CHINCHILLA (since 8 May 2006); Second Vice President (vacant)
cabinet: Cabinet selected by the president
elections: president and vice presidents elected on the same ticket by popular vote for a single four-year term; election last held 5 February 2006 (next to be held in February 2010)
election results: Oscar ARIAS Sanchez elected president; percent of vote - Oscar ARIAS Sanchez (PLN) 40.9%; Otton SOLIS (PAC) 39.8%, Otto GUEVARA Guth (PML) 8%, Ricardo TOLEDO (PUSC) 3%
Legislative branch:unicameral Legislative Assembly or Asamblea Legislativa (57 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 5 February 2006 (next to be held in February 2010)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PLN 25, PAC 17, PML 6, PUSC 5, PASE 1, PFA 1, PRN 1, PUN 1
Judicial branch:Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (22 justices are elected for renewable eight-year terms by the Legislative Assembly)
Political parties and leaders:Authentic Member from Heredia [Jose SALAS]; Citizen Action Party or PAC [Epsy CAMPBELL Barr]; Costa Rican Renovation Party or PRC [Gerardo Justo OROZCO Alvarez]; Democratic Force Party or PFD [Marco NUNEZ Gonzalez]; General Union Party or PUGEN [Carlos Alberto FERNANDEZ Vega]; Homeland First or PP [Juan Jose VARGAS Fallas]; Independent Worker Party or PIO [Jose Alberto CUBERO Carmona]; Libertarian Movement Party or PML [Otto GUEVARA Guth]; National Christian Alliance Party or ANC [Juan Carlos CHAVEZ Mora]; National Integration Party or PIN [Walter MUNOZ Cespedes]; National Liberation Party or PLN [Francisco Antonio PACHECO Fernandez]; National Patriotic Party or PPN [Daniel Enrique REYNOLDS Vargas]; National Restoration Party or PRN [Fabio Enrique DELGADO Hernandez]; National Union Party or PUN [Arturo ACOSTA Mora]; Nationalist Democratic Alliance or ADN [Jose Miguel VILLALOBOS Umana]; Patriotic Union or UP [Jose Miguel CORRALES Bolanos]; Social Christian Unity Party or PUSC [Luis FISHMAN Zonzinski]; Union for Change Party or UPC [Antonio ALVAREZ Desanti]; United Leftist Coalition or IU [Humberto VARGAS Carbonel]
Political pressure groups and leaders:Authentic Confederation of Democratic Workers or CATD (Communist Party affiliate); Chamber of Coffee Growers; Confederated Union of Workers or CUT (Communist Party affiliate); Costa Rican Confederation of Democratic Workers or CCTD (Liberation Party affiliate); Costa Rican Exporter's Chamber or CADEXCO; Costa Rican Solidarity Movement; Costa Rican Union of Private Sector Enterprises or UCCAEP [Rafael CARRILLO]; Federation of Public Service Workers or FTSP; National Association for Economic Development or ANFE; National Association of Educators or ANDE; National Association of Public and Private Employees or ANEP [Albino VARGAS]; Rerum Novarum or CTRN (PLN affiliate) [Gilbert BROWN]
International organization participation:BCIE, CACM, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, NAM (observer), OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Tomas DUENAS
chancery: 2114 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 234-2945
FAX: [1] (202) 265-4795
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Hammond (temporary location in Louisiana), Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, San Juan (Puerto Rico), Tampa (temporarily closed), Washington, DC
consulate(s): San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Mark LANGDALE
embassy: Calle 120 Avenida O, Pavas, San Jose
mailing address: APO AA 34020
telephone: [506] 519-2000
FAX: [506] 519-2305
Flag description:five horizontal bands of blue (top), white, red (double width), white, and blue, with the coat of arms in a white elliptical disk on the hoist side of the red band; above the coat of arms a light blue ribbon contains the words, AMERICA CENTRAL, and just below it near the top of the coat of arms is a white ribbon with the words, REPUBLICA COSTA RICA
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:Costa Rica's basically stable economy depends on tourism, agriculture, and electronics exports. Poverty has remained at roughly 20% for nearly 20 years, and the strong social safety net that had been put into place by the government has eroded due to increased financial constraints on government expenditures. Immigration from Nicaragua has increasingly become a concern for the government. The estimated 300,000-500,000 Nicaraguans estimated to be in Costa Rica legally and illegally are an important source of (mostly unskilled) labor, but also place heavy demands on the social welfare system. Foreign investors remain attracted by the country's political stability and high education levels, as well as the fiscal incentives offered in the free-trade zones. Exports have become more diversified in the past 10 years due to the growth of the high-tech manufacturing sector, which is dominated by the microprocessor industry. Tourism continues to bring in foreign exchange, as Costa Rica's impressive biodiversity makes it a key destination for ecotourism. The government continues to grapple with its large internal and external deficits and sizable internal debt. Reducing inflation remains a difficult problem because of rising import prices, labor market rigidities, and fiscal deficits. Tax and public expenditure reforms will be necessary to close the budget gap. In October 2007, a national referendum voted in favor of the US-Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA). CAFTA implementation needs to be completed by March 1, 2008 and would result in an improved investment climate.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$55.95 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$22.84 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:6.1% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$13,500 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 8.6%
industry: 29.4%
services: 62.1% (2007 est.)
Labor force:1.946 million
note: this official estimate excludes Nicaraguans living in Costa Rica (2007 est.)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 14%
industry: 22%
services: 64% (2006 est.)
Unemployment rate:5.5% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:18% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 1%
highest 10%: 37.4% (2003)
Distribution of family income—Gini index:49.8 (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):9.3% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):20.3% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:revenues: $3.572 billion
expenditures: $3.843 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:47.4% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture—products:bananas, pineapples, coffee, melons, ornamental plants, sugar, corn, rice, beans, potatoes; beef; timber
Industries:microprocessors, food processing, medical equipment, textiles and clothing, construction materials, fertilizer, plastic products
Industrial production growth rate:7% (2007 est.)
Electricity—production:8.349 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—consumption:7.776 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—exports:70 million kWh (2005)
Electricity—imports:81 million kWh (2005)
Oil—production:0 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—consumption:43,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—exports:2,998 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—imports:43,640 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:$-1.259 billion (2007 est.)
Exports:$9.232 billion (2007 est.)
Exports—commodities:bananas, pineapples, coffee, melons, ornamental plants, sugar; seafood; electronic components, medical equipment
Exports—partners:US 27.5%, Netherlands 12.2%, China 11.7%, UK 6.2%, Mexico 5.8% (2006)
Imports:$11.84 billion (2007 est.)
Imports—commodities:raw materials, consumer goods, capital equipment, petroleum, construction materials
Imports—partners:US 41.2%, Venezuela 5.4%, Mexico 5.2%, Ireland 5%, Japan 4.9%, Brazil 4.3%, China 4.1% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$3.915 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt—external:$7.163 billion (30 June 2007)
Stock of direct foreign investment—at home:$6.897 billion (2006 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment—abroad:$261.3 million (2006 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:$1.478 billion (2005)
Economic aid—recipient:$29.51 million (2005)
Currency (code):Costa Rican colon (CRC)
Exchange rates:Costa Rican colones per US dollar - 519.53 (2007), 511.3 (2006), 477.79 (2005), 437.91 (2004), 398.66 (2003)
Fiscal year:calendar year
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:1.351 million (2006)
Telephones—mobile cellular:1.444 million (2006)
Telephone system:general assessment: good domestic telephone service in terms of breadth of coverage; restricted cellular telephone service; state-run monopoly provider is struggling with the demand for new lines, resulting in long waiting times
domestic: point-to-point and point-to-multi-point microwave, fiber-optic, and coaxial cable link rural areas; Internet service is available
international: country code - 506; landing point for the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) fiber-optic telecommunications submarine cable and the MAYA-1 submarine cable that provide links to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; connected to Central American Microwave System; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2007)
Radio broadcast stations:AM 65, FM 51, shortwave 19 (2002)
Television broadcast stations:20 (plus 43 repeaters) (2002)
Internet country code:.cr
Internet hosts:13,792 (2007)
Internet users:1.214 million (2006)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:151 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 36
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 21
under 914 m: 11 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 115
914 to 1,523 m: 19
under 914 m: 96 (2007)
Pipelines:refined products 242 km (2007)
Railways:total: 278 km
narrow gauge: 278 km 1.067-m gauge
note: none of the railway network is in use (2007)
Roadways:total: 35,330 km
paved: 8,621 km
unpaved: 26,709 km (2004)
Waterways:730 km (seasonally navigable by small craft) (2007)
Merchant marine:total: 1 ship (1000 GRT or over) 1,058 GRT/255 DWT
by type: passenger/cargo 1 (2007)
Ports and terminals:Caldera, Puerto Limon
  
Military
  
Military branches:no regular military forces; Ministry of Public Security, Government, and Police (2006)
Military service age and obligation:18 years of age (2004)
Manpower available for military service:males age 18-49: 997,690
females age 18-49: 968,290 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 18-49: 829,874
females age 18-49: 809,343 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:males age 18-49: 41,097
females age 18-49: 39,243
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:0.4% (2006)
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:in September 2005, Costa Rica took its case before the ICJ to advocate the navigation, security, and commercial rights of Costa Rican vessels using the Río San Juan over which Nicaragua retains sovereignty
Refugees and internally displaced persons:refugees (country of origin): 9,470 (Colombia) (2006)
Illicit drugs:transshipment country for cocaine and heroin from South America; illicit production of cannabis in remote areas; domestic cocaine consumption, particularly crack cocaine, is rising; significant consumption of amphetamines

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