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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Cape Verde
 
Flag of Cape Verde                                Map of Cape Verde
 
Background:The uninhabited islands were discovered and colonized by the Portuguese in the 15th century; Cape Verde subsequently became a trading center for African slaves and later an important coaling and resupply stop for whaling and transatlantic shipping. Following independence in 1975, and a tentative interest in unification with Guinea-Bissau, a one-party system was established and maintained until multi-party elections were held in 1990. Cape Verde continues to exhibit one of Africa's most stable democratic governments. Repeated droughts during the second half of the 20th century caused significant hardship and prompted heavy emigration. As a result, Cape Verde's expatriate population is greater than its domestic one. Most Cape Verdeans have both African and Portuguese antecedents.
  
Geography
  
Location:Western Africa, group of islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Senegal
Geographic coordinates:16 00 N, 24 00 W
Map references:Political Map of the World
Area:total: 4,033 sq km
land: 4,033 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area—comparative:slightly larger than Rhode Island
Land boundaries:0 km
Coastline:965 km
Maritime claims:measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate:temperate; warm, dry summer; precipitation meager and very erratic
Terrain:steep, rugged, rocky, volcanic
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mt. Fogo 2,829 m (a volcano on Fogo Island)
Natural resources:salt, basalt rock, limestone, kaolin, fish, clay, gypsum
Land use:arable land: 11.41%
permanent crops: 0.74%
other: 87.85% (2005)
Irrigated land:30 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:0.3 cu km (1990)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 0.02 cu km/yr (7%/2%/91%)
per capita: 39 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:prolonged droughts; seasonal harmattan wind produces obscuring dust; volcanically and seismically active
Environment—current issues:soil erosion; deforestation due to demand for wood used as fuel; water shortages; desertification; environmental damage has threatened several species of birds and reptiles; illegal beach sand extraction; overfishing
Environment—international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography—note:strategic location 500 km from west coast of Africa near major north-south sea routes; important communications station; important sea and air refueling site
  
People
  
Population:423,613 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 36.9% (male 78,971/female 77,524)
15-64 years: 56.4% (male 116,751/female 122,065)
65 years and over: 6.7% (male 10,423/female 17,879) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 20.2 years
male: 19.4 years
female: 21.1 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:0.606% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:24.4 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:6.5 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:-11.83 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.019 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.956 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.583 male(s)/female
total population: 0.948 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 45.27 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 50.31 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 40.08 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 71.02 years
male: 67.69 years
female: 74.44 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:3.28 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:0.035% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:775 (2001)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:225 (as of 2001)
Nationality:noun: Cape Verdean(s)
adjective: Cape Verdean
Ethnic groups:Creole (mulatto) 71%, African 28%, European 1%
Religions:Roman Catholic (infused with indigenous beliefs), Protestant (mostly Church of the Nazarene)
Languages:Portuguese, Crioulo (a blend of Portuguese and West African words)
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 76.6%
male: 85.8%
female: 69.2% (2003 est.)
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Cape Verde
conventional short form: Cape Verde
local long form: Republica de Cabo Verde
local short form: Cabo Verde
Government type:republic
Capital:name: Praia
geographic coordinates: 14 55 N, 23 31 W
time difference: UTC-1 (4 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:17 municipalities (concelhos, singular - concelho); Boa Vista, Brava, Maio, Mosteiros, Paul, Praia, Porto Novo, Ribeira Grande, Sal, Santa Catarina, Santa Cruz, Sao Domingos, Sao Filipe, Sao Miguel, Sao Nicolau, Sao Vicente, Tarrafal
Independence:5 July 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday:Independence Day, 5 July (1975)
Constitution:25 September 1992; a major revision on 23 November 1995 substantially increased the powers of the president; a 1999 revision created the position of national ombudsman (Provedor de Justica)
Legal system:based on the legal system of Portugal; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: President Pedro Verona PIRES (since 22 March 2001)
head of government: Prime Minister Jose Maria Pereira NEVES (since 1 February 2001)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 12 February 2006 (next to be held in February 2011); prime minister nominated by the National Assembly and appointed by the president
election results: Pedro PIRES reelected president; percent of vote - Pedro PIRES (PAICV) 51.2%, Carlos VIEGA (MPD) 48.8%
Legislative branch:unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (72 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 22 January 2006 (next to be held in January 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - PAICV 52.3%, MPD 44%, UCID 2.7%; seats by party - PAICV 41, MPD 29, UCID 2
Judicial branch:Supreme Tribunal of Justice or Supremo Tribunal de Justia
Political parties and leaders:African Party for Independence of Cape Verde or PAICV [Jose Maria Pereira NEVES, chairman]; Democratic Alliance for Change or ADM [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO] (a coalition of PCD, PTS, and UCID); Democratic Christian Party or PDC [Manuel RODRIGUES]; Democratic Renovation Party or PRD [Victor FIDALGO]; Democratic and Independent Cape Verdean Union or UCID [Antonio MONTEIRO]; Movement for Democracy or MPD [Agostinho LOPES]; Party for Democratic Convergence or PCD [Dr. Eurico MONTEIRO]; Party of Work and Solidarity or PTS [Isaias RODRIGUES]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Joao ALEM]
Political pressure groups and leaders:NA
International organization participation:ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, CPLP, ECOWAS, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Fatima Lima VEIGA (since 16 August 2007)
chancery: 3415 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 965-6820
FAX: [1] (202) 965-1207
consulate(s) general: Boston
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Roger D. PIERCE
embassy: Rua Abilio Macedo n6, Praia
mailing address: C. P. 201, Praia
telephone: [238] 2-60-89-00
FAX: [238] 2-61-13-55
Flag description:five unequal horizontal bands; the top-most band of blue - equal to one half the width of the flag - is followed by three bands of white, red, and white, each equal to 1/12 of the width, and a bottom stripe of blue equal to one quarter of the flag width; a circle of 10, yellow, five-pointed stars, each representing one of the islands, is centered on the red stripe and positioned 3/8 of the length of the flag from the hoist side
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:This island economy suffers from a poor natural resource base, including serious water shortages exacerbated by cycles of long-term drought. The economy is service-oriented, with commerce, transport, tourism, and public services accounting for 66% of GDP. Although nearly 70% of the population lives in rural areas, the share of food production in GDP is low. About 82% of food must be imported. The fishing potential, mostly lobster and tuna, is not fully exploited. Cape Verde annually runs a high trade deficit, financed by foreign aid and remittances from emigrants; remittances supplement GDP by more than 20%. Economic reforms are aimed at developing the private sector and attracting foreign investment to diversify the economy. Future prospects depend heavily on the maintenance of aid flows, the encouragement of tourism, remittances, and the momentum of the government's development program.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$3.709 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$1.367 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:7% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$7,000 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 9.3%
industry: 16.9%
services: 73.9% (2007 est.)
Labor force:120,600 (1990)
Unemployment rate:21% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:30% (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):3% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):36.9% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:revenues: $444.7 million
expenditures: $496 million (2007 est.)
Agriculture—products:bananas, corn, beans, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, coffee, peanuts; fish
Industries:food and beverages, fish processing, shoes and garments, salt mining, ship repair
Industrial production growth rate:9% (2007 est.)
Electricity—production:45 million kWh (2005)
Electricity—consumption:41.85 million kWh (2005)
Electricity—exports:0 kWh (2005)
Electricity—imports:0 kWh (2005)
Oil—production:0 bbl/day (2005)
Oil—consumption:2,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—exports:0 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—imports:2,080 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:$-218 million (2007 est.)
Exports:$100.2 million f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports—commodities:fuel, shoes, garments, fish, hides
Exports—partners:Spain 39.4%, Portugal 19.3%, Netherlands 11.3%, Germany 10.9%, Morocco 4.1% (2006)
Imports:$727.1 million f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports—commodities:foodstuffs, industrial products, transport equipment, fuels
Imports—partners:Portugal 41.1%, Netherlands 10.6%, Spain 6.5%, Italy 5.5%, Cote d'Ivoire 5.2%, Brazil 4.8% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$343.8 million (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt—external:$325 million (2002)
Economic aid—recipient:$160.6 million (2005)
Currency (code):Cape Verdean escudo (CVE)
Exchange rates:Cape Verdean escudos (CVE) per US dollar - 81.235 (2007), 87.946 (2006), 88.67 (2005), 88.808 (2004), 97.703 (2003)
Fiscal year:calendar year
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:71,600 (2006)
Telephones—mobile cellular:108,900 (2006)
Telephone system:general assessment: effective system, extensive modernization from 1996-2000 following partial privatization in 1995
domestic: major service provider is Cabo Verde Telecom (CVT); fiber-optic ring, completed in 2001, links all islands providing Internet access and ISDN services; cellular service introduced in 1998; broadband services launched in 2004
international: country code - 238; landing point for the Atlantis-2 fiber-optic transatlantic telephone cable that provides links to South America, Senegal, and Europe; HF radiotelephone to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2007)
Radio broadcast stations:AM 0, FM 22 (plus 12 repeaters), shortwave 0 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:1 (plus 7 repeaters) (2001)
Internet country code:.cv
Internet hosts:344 (2007)
Internet users:29,000 (2005)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:8 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 8
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Roadways:total: 1,350 km
paved: 932 km
unpaved: 418 km (2000)
Merchant marine:total: 8 ships (1000 GRT or over) 13,922 GRT/7,726 DWT
by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 1, passenger/cargo 5
foreign-owned: 2 (Spain 1, UK 1) (2007)
Ports and terminals:Porto Grande
  
Military
  
Military branches:People's Revolutionary Armed Forces (FARP): Army, Coast Guard (includes maritime air wing) (2007)
Military service age and obligation:18 years of age (est.) for selective compulsory military service; 14-month conscript service obligation (2006)
Manpower available for military service:males age 18-49: 84,641
females age 18-49: 87,310 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 18-49: 65,614
females age 18-49: 73,662 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:0.7% (2005)
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:none
Illicit drugs:used as a transshipment point for Latin American cocaine destined for Western Europe; the lack of a well-developed financial system limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center

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