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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Guatemala
 
Flag of Guatemala                                Map of Guatemala
 
Background:The Mayan civilization flourished in Guatemala and surrounding regions during the first millennium A.D. After almost three centuries as a Spanish colony, Guatemala won its independence in 1821. During the second half of the 20th century, it experienced a variety of military and civilian governments, as well as a 36-year guerrilla war. In 1996, the government signed a peace agreement formally ending the conflict, which had left more than 100,000 people dead and had created, by some estimates, some 1 million refugees.
  
Geography
  
Location:Central America, bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between El Salvador and Mexico, and bordering the Gulf of Honduras (Caribbean Sea) between Honduras and Belize
Geographic coordinates:15 30 N, 90 15 W
Map references:Central America and the Caribbean
Area:total: 108,890 sq km
land: 108,430 sq km
water: 460 sq km
Area—comparative:slightly smaller than Tennessee
Land boundaries:total: 1,687 km
border countries: Belize 266 km, El Salvador 203 km, Honduras 256 km, Mexico 962 km
Coastline:400 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:tropical; hot, humid in lowlands; cooler in highlands
Terrain:mostly mountains with narrow coastal plains and rolling limestone plateau
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Volcan Tajumulco 4,211 m
Natural resources:petroleum, nickel, rare woods, fish, chicle, hydropower
Land use:arable land: 13.22%
permanent crops: 5.6%
other: 81.18% (2005)
Irrigated land:1,300 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:111.3 cu km (2000)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 2.01 cu km/yr (6%/13%/80%)
per capita: 160 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:numerous volcanoes in mountains, with occasional violent earthquakes; Caribbean coast extremely susceptible to hurricanes and other tropical storms
Environment—current issues:deforestation in the Peten rainforest; soil erosion; water pollution
Environment—international agreements:party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography—note:no natural harbors on west coast
  
People
  
Population:12,728,111 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 40.8% (male 2,641,179/female 2,556,397)
15-64 years: 55.5% (male 3,426,376/female 3,642,157)
65 years and over: 3.6% (male 213,801/female 248,201) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 18.9 years
male: 18.3 years
female: 19.5 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:2.152% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:29.09 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:5.27 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:-2.31 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.033 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.941 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.861 male(s)/female
total population: 0.974 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 29.77 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 32.26 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 27.16 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 69.69 years
male: 67.94 years
female: 71.52 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:3.7 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:1.1% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:78,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:5,800 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: dengue fever and malaria (2008)
Nationality:noun: Guatemalan(s)
adjective: Guatemalan
Ethnic groups:Mestizo (mixed Amerindian-Spanish - in local Spanish called Ladino) and European 59.4%, K'iche 9.1%, Kaqchikel 8.4%, Mam 7.9%, Q'eqchi 6.3%, other Mayan 8.6%, indigenous non-Mayan 0.2%, other 0.1% (2001 census)
Religions:Roman Catholic, Protestant, indigenous Mayan beliefs
Languages:Spanish 60%, Amerindian languages 40% (23 officially recognized Amerindian languages, including Quiche, Cakchiquel, Kekchi, Mam, Garifuna, and Xinca)
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 69.1%
male: 75.4%
female: 63.3% (2002 census)
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Guatemala
conventional short form: Guatemala
local long form: Republica de Guatemala
local short form: Guatemala
Government type:constitutional democratic republic
Capital:name: Guatemala
geographic coordinates: 14 37 N, 90 31 W
time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in April; ends last Friday in September; note - there is no DST planned for 2007-2009
Administrative divisions:22 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, Chimaltenango, Chiquimula, El Progreso, Escuintla, Guatemala, Huehuetenango, Izabal, Jalapa, Jutiapa, Peten, Quetzaltenango, Quiche, Retalhuleu, Sacatepequez, San Marcos, Santa Rosa, Solola, Suchitepequez, Totonicapan, Zacapa
Independence:15 September 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday:Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Constitution:31 May 1985, effective 14 January 1986; note - suspended 25 May 1993 by former President Jorge SERRANO; reinstated 5 June 1993 following ouster of president; amended November 1993
Legal system:civil law system; judicial review of legislative acts; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal; note - active duty members of the armed forces may not vote and are restricted to their barracks on election day
Executive branch:chief of state: President Alvaro COLOM Caballeros (since 14 January 2008); Vice President Rafael ESPADA (since 14 January 2008); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Alvaro COLOM Caballeros (since 14 January 2008); Vice President Rafael ESPADA (since 14 January 2008)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term (may not serve consecutive terms); election last held 9 September 2007; runoff held 4 November 2007 (next to be held September 2011)
election results: Alvaro COLOM Caballeros elected president; percent of vote - Alvaro COLOM Caballeros 52.8%, Otto PEREZ Molina 47.2%
Legislative branch:unicameral Congress of the Republic or Congreso de la Republica (158 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 9 September 2007 (next to be held in September 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - UNE 30.4%, GANA 23.4%, PP 18.9%, FRG 9.5%, PU 5.1%, other 12.7%; seats by party - UNE 48, GANA 37, PP 30, FRG 15, PU 8, CASA 5, EG 4, PAN 4, UCN 4, URNG 2, UD 1
Judicial branch:Constitutional Court or Corte de Constitutcionalidad is Guatemala's highest court (five judges are elected for concurrent five-year terms); Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (13 members serve concurrent five-year terms and elect a president of the Court each year from among their number; the president of the Supreme Court of Justice also supervises trial judges around the country, who are named to five-year terms)
Political parties and leaders:Center of Social Action or CASA [Eduardo SUGER]; Democracy Front or FRENTE [Alfonso CABRERA]; Democratic Union or UD [Manuel CONDE Orellana]; Encounter for Guatemala or EG [Nineth MONTENGRO]; Grand National Alliance or GANA [Alfredo VILLA]; Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity or URNG [Hector NUILA]; Guatemalan Republican Front or FRG [Efrain RIOS Montt]; National Advancement Party or PAN [Ruben Dario MORALES]; National Unity for Hope or UNE [Alvaro COLOM Caballeros]; Patriot Party or PP [Ret. Gen. Otto PEREZ Molina]; Unionista Party or PU [Fritz GARCIA]; Unity of National Change or UCN [Sidney SHAW]
Political pressure groups and leaders:Agrarian Owners Group or UNAGRO; Alliance Against Impunity or AAI; Committee for Campesino Unity or CUC; Coordinating Committee of Agricultural, Commercial, Industrial, and Financial Associations or CACIF; Mutual Support Group or GAM
International organization participation:BCIE, CACM, FAO, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMEE, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Guillermo CASTILLO
chancery: 2220 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 745-4952
FAX: [1] (202) 745-1908
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Denver, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Providence, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador James M. DERHAM
embassy: 7-01 Avenida Reforma, Zone 10, Guatemala City
mailing address: APO AA 34024
telephone: [502] 2326-4000
FAX: [502] 2326-4654
Flag description:three equal vertical bands of light blue (hoist side), white, and light blue with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms includes a green and red quetzal (the national bird) and a scroll bearing the inscription LIBERTAD 15 DE SEPTIEMBRE DE 1821 (the original date of independence from Spain) all superimposed on a pair of crossed rifles and a pair of crossed swords and framed by a wreath
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:Guatemala is the most populous of the Central American countries with a GDP per capita roughly one-half that of Argentina, Brazil, and Chile. The agricultural sector accounts for about one-fourth of GDP, two-fifths of exports, and half of the labor force. Coffee, sugar, and bananas are the main products, with sugar exports benefiting from increased global demand for ethanol. The 1996 signing of peace accords, which ended 36 years of civil war, removed a major obstacle to foreign investment, and Guatemala since then has pursued important reforms and macroeconomic stabilization. On 1 July 2006, the Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) entered into force between the US and Guatemala and has since spurred increased investment in the export sector. The distribution of income remains highly unequal with about 56% of the population below the poverty line. Other ongoing challenges include increasing government revenues, negotiating further assistance from international donors, upgrading both government and private financial operations, curtailing drug trafficking and rampant crime, and narrowing the trade deficit. Given Guatemala's large expatriate community in the United States, it is the top remittance recipient in Central America, with inflows serving as a primary source of foreign income equivalent to nearly two-thirds of exports.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$67.45 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$31.35 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:5.6% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$5,400 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 13.8%
industry: 27.9%
services: 58.3% (2007 est.)
Labor force:3.958 million (2007 est.)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 50%
industry: 15%
services: 35% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:3.2% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line:56.2% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 0.9%
highest 10%: 43.4% (2002)
Distribution of family income—Gini index:55.1 (2007)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):6.6% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):15.9% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:revenues: $4.301 billion
expenditures: $5.219 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:23.3% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture—products:sugarcane, corn, bananas, coffee, beans, cardamom; cattle, sheep, pigs, chickens
Industries:sugar, textiles and clothing, furniture, chemicals, petroleum, metals, rubber, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:5.9% (2007 est.)
Electricity—production:7.281 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—consumption:6.361 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—exports:339 million kWh (2005)
Electricity—imports:23 million kWh (2005)
Oil—production:20,100 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil—consumption:73,510 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil—exports:15,560 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil—imports:72,960 bbl/day (2006 est.)
Oil—proved reserves:526 million bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:2.96 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:$-1.772 billion (2007 est.)
Exports:$7.468 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports—commodities:coffee, sugar, petroleum, apparel, bananas, fruits and vegetables, cardamom
Exports—partners:US 44.6%, El Salvador 11.9%, Honduras 7.2%, Mexico 5.2% (2006)
Imports:$12.67 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports—commodities:fuels, machinery and transport equipment, construction materials, grain, fertilizers, electricity
Imports—partners:US 33.2%, Mexico 8.8%, China 6.5%, El Salvador 5.3%, South Korea 4.9% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$4.559 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt—external:$5.561 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:$NA
Economic aid—recipient:$253.6 million (2005 est.)
Currency (code):quetzal (GTQ), US dollar (USD), others allowed
Exchange rates:quetzales per US dollar - 7.6833 (2007), 7.6026 (2006), 7.6339 (2005), 7.9465 (2004), 7.9409 (2003)
Fiscal year:calendar year
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:1.355 million (2006)
Telephones—mobile cellular:7.179 million (2006)
Telephone system:general assessment: fairly modern network centered in the city of Guatemala
domestic: state-owned telecommunications company privatized in the late 1990s opening the way for competition; fixed-line teledensity 11 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity approaching 60 per 100 persons
international: country code - 502; landing point for both the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the SAM-1 fiber optic submarine cable system that together provide connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; connected to Central American Microwave System; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:AM 130, FM 487, shortwave 15 (2000)
Television broadcast stations:26 (plus 27 repeaters) (1997)
Internet country code:.gt
Internet hosts:40,927 (2007)
Internet users:1.32 million (2006)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:402 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 12
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 3 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 390
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 82
under 914 m: 301 (2007)
Pipelines:oil 480 km (2007)
Railways:total: 886 km
narrow gauge: 886 km 0.914-m gauge (2006)
Roadways:total: 14,095 km
paved: 4,863 km (includes 75 km of expressways)
unpaved: 9,232 km (1999)
Waterways:990 km
note: 260 km navigable year round; additional 730 km navigable during high-water season (2007)
Ports and terminals:Puerto Quetzal, Santo Tomas de Castilla
  
Military
  
Military branches:Army, Navy (includes Marines), Air Force
Military service age and obligation:all male citizens between the ages of 18 and 50 are liable for military service; conscript service obligation varies from 12 to 24 months; women can serve as officers (2007)
Manpower available for military service:males age 18-49: 2,429,033
females age 18-49: 2,503,482 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 18-49: 1,911,412
females age 18-49: 2,070,806 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:males age 18-49: 134,032
females age 18-49: 130,641 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:0.4% (2006)
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:annual ministerial meetings under the OAS-initiated Agreement on the Framework for Negotiations and Confidence Building Measures continue to address Guatemalan land and maritime claims in Belize and the Caribbean Sea; the Line of Adjacency created under the 2002 Differendum serves in lieu of the contiguous international boundary to control squatting in the sparsely inhabited rain forests of Belize's border region; Mexico must deal with thousands of impoverished Guatemalans and other Central Americans who cross the porous border looking for work in Mexico and the United States
Refugees and internally displaced persons:IDPs: undetermined (estimates vary from none to 1 million displaced from government's scorched-earth offensive in 1980s against indigenous people) (2006)
Illicit drugs:major transit country for cocaine and heroin; in 2005, cultivated 100 hectares of opium poppy after reemerging as a potential source of opium in 2004; potential production of less than 1 metric ton of pure heroin; marijuana cultivation for mostly domestic consumption; proximity to Mexico makes Guatemala a major staging area for drugs (particularly for cocaine); money laundering is a serious problem; corruption is a major problem

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