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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Christmas Island
 
Flag of Christmas Island                                Map of Christmas Island
 
Background:Named in 1643 for the day of its discovery, the island was annexed and settlement began by the UK in 1888. Phosphate mining began in the 1890s. The UK transferred sovereignty to Australia in 1958. Almost two-thirds of the island has been declared a national park.
  
Geography
  
Location:Southeastern Asia, island in the Indian Ocean, south of Indonesia
Geographic coordinates:10 30 S, 105 40 E
Map references:Southeast Asia
Area:total: 135 sq km
land: 135 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area—comparative:about three-quarters the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:0 km
Coastline:138.9 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 12 nm
exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Climate:tropical with a wet season (December to April) and dry season; heat and humidity moderated by trade winds
Terrain:steep cliffs along coast rise abruptly to central plateau
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Murray Hill 361 m
Natural resources:phosphate, beaches
Land use:arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (mainly tropical rainforest; 63% of the island is a national park) (2005)
Irrigated land:NA
Natural hazards:the narrow fringing reef surrounding the island can be a maritime hazard
Environment—current issues:loss of rainforest; impact of phosphate mining
Geography—note:located along major sea lanes of Indian Ocean
  
People
  
Population:1,402 (July 2006 est.) (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA
Population growth rate:0% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:NA
Death rate:NA
Net migration rate:NA
Sex ratio:NA
Infant mortality rate:total: NA
male: NA
female: NA
Life expectancy at birth:total population: NA
male: NA
female: NA
Total fertility rate:NA
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:NA
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:NA
HIV/AIDS—deaths:NA
Nationality:noun: Christmas Islander(s)
adjective: Christmas Island
Ethnic groups:Chinese 70%, European 20%, Malay 10%
note: no indigenous population (2001)
Religions:Buddhist 36%, Muslim 25%, Christian 18%, other 21% (1997)
Languages:English (official), Chinese, Malay
Literacy:NA
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: Territory of Christmas Island
conventional short form: Christmas Island
Dependency status:non-self governing territory of Australia; administered from Canberra by the Australian Attorney-General's Department
Government type:NA
Capital:name: The Settlement
geographic coordinates: 10 25 S, 105 43 E
time difference: UTC+7 (12 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:none (territory of Australia)
Independence:none (territory of Australia)
National holiday:Australia Day, 26 January (1788)
Constitution:Christmas Island Act of 1958-59 (1 October 1958) as amended by the Territories Law Reform Act of 1992
Legal system:under the authority of the governor general of Australia and Australian law
Executive branch:chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952), represented by the Australian governor general
head of government: Administrator Neil LUCAS (since 30 January 2006)
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia and represents the monarch and Australia
Legislative branch:unicameral Christmas Island Shire Council (9 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: held every two years with half the members standing for election; last held 20 October 2007 (next to be held in 2009)
election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - independents 9
Judicial branch:Supreme Court; District Court; Magistrate's Court
Political parties and leaders:none
Political pressure groups and leaders:none
International organization participation:none
Diplomatic representation in the US:none (territory of Australia)
Diplomatic representation from the US:none (territory of Australia)
Flag description:territorial flag; divided diagonally from upper hoist to lower fly; the upper triangle is green with a yellow image of the Golden Bosun Bird superimposed, while the lower triangle is blue with the Southern Cross constellation, representing Australia, superimposed; a centered yellow disk displays a green map of the island
note: the flag of Australia is used for official purposes
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:Phosphate mining had been the only significant economic activity, but in December 1987 the Australian Government closed the mine. In 1991, the mine was reopened. With the support of the government, a $34 million casino opened in 1993, but closed in 1998. The Australian Government in 2001 agreed to support the creation of a commercial space-launching site on the island, expected to begin operations in the near future.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$NA
Labor force:NA
Budget:revenues: $NA
expenditures: $NA
Agriculture—products:NA
Industries:tourism, phosphate extraction (near depletion)
Exports:$NA
Exports—commodities:phosphate
Exports—partners:Australia, NZ (2006)
Imports:$NA
Imports—commodities:consumer goods
Imports—partners:principally Australia (2006)
Economic aid—recipient:$NA
Currency (code):Australian dollar (AUD)
Exchange rates:Australian dollars per US dollar - 1.2137 (2007), 1.3285 (2006), 1.3095 (2005), 1.3598 (2004), 1.5419 (2003)
Fiscal year:1 July - 30 June
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:NA
Telephone system:general assessment: service provided by the Australian network
domestic: GSM mobile telephone service replaced older analog system in February 2005
international: country code - 61-8; satellite earth stations - 1 INTELSAT earth station provides telephone and telex service (2005)
Radio broadcast stations:AM 1, FM 2, shortwave 0 (2006)
Television broadcast stations:0 (TV broadcasts received via satellite from mainland Australia) (2006)
Internet country code:.cx
Internet hosts:1,826 (2007)
Internet users:464 (2001)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:1 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2007)
Roadways:total: 142 km
paved: 32 km
unpaved: 110 km (2006)
Ports and terminals:Flying Fish Cove
  
Military
  
Military—note:defense is the responsibility of Australia
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:none

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