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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Luxembourg
 
Flag of Luxembourg                                Map of Luxembourg
 
Background:Founded in 963, Luxembourg became a grand duchy in 1815 and an independent state under the Netherlands. It lost more than half of its territory to Belgium in 1839, but gained a larger measure of autonomy. Full independence was attained in 1867. Overrun by Germany in both World Wars, it ended its neutrality in 1948 when it entered into the Benelux Customs Union and when it joined NATO the following year. In 1957, Luxembourg became one of the six founding countries of the European Economic Community (later the European Union), and in 1999 it joined the euro currency area.
  
Geography
  
Location:Western Europe, between France and Germany
Geographic coordinates:49 45 N, 6 10 E
Map references:Europe
Area:total: 2,586 sq km
land: 2,586 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area—comparative:slightly smaller than Rhode Island
Land boundaries:total: 359 km
border countries: Belgium 148 km, France 73 km, Germany 138 km
Coastline:0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:none (landlocked)
Climate:modified continental with mild winters, cool summers
Terrain:mostly gently rolling uplands with broad, shallow valleys; uplands to slightly mountainous in the north; steep slope down to Moselle flood plain in the southeast
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Moselle River 133 m
highest point: Buurgplaatz 559 m
Natural resources:iron ore (no longer exploited), arable land
Land use:arable land: 23.94%
permanent crops: 0.39%
other: 75.67% (includes Belgium) (2005)
Irrigated land:NA
Total renewable water resources:1.6 cu km (2005)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 0.06 cu km/yr (42%/45%/13%)
per capita: 121 cu m/yr (1999)
Natural hazards:NA
Environment—current issues:air and water pollution in urban areas, soil pollution of farmland
Environment—international agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Geography—note:landlocked; the only Grand Duchy in the world
  
People
  
Population:480,222 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 18.8% (male 46,478/female 43,656)
15-64 years: 66.6% (male 161,466/female 158,261)
65 years and over: 14.7% (male 28,530/female 41,831) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 38.9 years
male: 37.9 years
female: 39.9 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:1.207% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:11.84 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:8.42 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:8.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.065 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.682 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 4.68 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.67 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 4.69 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 79.03 years
male: 75.76 years
female: 82.52 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:1.78 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:0.2% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:less than 500 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:less than 100 (2003 est.)
Nationality:noun: Luxembourger(s)
adjective: Luxembourg
Ethnic groups:Celtic base (with French and German blend), Portuguese, Italian, Slavs (from Montenegro, Albania, and Kosovo) and European (guest and resident workers)
Religions:Roman Catholic 87%, other (includes Protestant, Jewish, and Muslim) 13% (2000)
Languages:Luxembourgish (national language), German (administrative language), French (administrative language)
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100%
male: 100%
female: 100% (2000 est.)
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
conventional short form: Luxembourg
local long form: Grand Duche de Luxembourg
local short form: Luxembourg
Government type:constitutional monarchy
Capital:name: Luxembourg
geographic coordinates: 49 36 N, 6 07 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:3 districts; Diekirch, Grevenmacher, Luxembourg
Independence:1839 (from the Netherlands)
National holiday:National Day (Birthday of Grand Duchess Charlotte) 23 June; note - the actual date of birth was 23 January 1896, but the festivities were shifted by five months to allow observance during a more favorable time of year
Constitution:17 October 1868; occasional revisions
Legal system:based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch:chief of state: Grand Duke HENRI (since 7 October 2000); Heir Apparent Prince GUILLAUME (son of the monarch)
head of government: Prime Minister Jean-Claude JUNCKER (since 20 January 1995); Deputy Prime Minister Jean ASSELBORN (since 31 July 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers recommended by the prime minister and appointed by the monarch
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; following popular elections to the Chamber of Deputies, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the monarch; the deputy prime minister is appointed by the monarch; they are responsible to the Chamber of Deputies
note: government coalition - CSV and LSAP
Legislative branch:unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (60 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 13 June 2004 (next to be held by June 2009)
election results: percent of vote by party - CSV 36.1%, LSAP 23.4%, DP 16.1%, Green Party 11.6%, ADR 10%, other 2.8%; seats by party - CSV 24, LSAP 14, DP 10, Green Party 7, ADR 5
note: there is also a Council of State that serves as an advisory body to the Chamber of Deputies; the Council of State has 21 members appointed by the Grand Duke on the advice of the prime minister
Judicial branch:judicial courts and tribunals (3 Justices of the Peace, 2 district courts, and 1 Supreme Court of Appeals); administrative courts and tribunals (State Prosecutor's Office, administrative courts and tribunals, and the Constitutional Court); judges for all courts are appointed for life by the monarch
Political parties and leaders:Alternative Democratic Reform Party or ADR [Robert MENLEN]; Christian Social People's Party or CSV [Francois BILTGEN] (also known as Christian Social Party or PCS); Democratic Party or DP [Claude MEISCH]; Green Party [Francois BAUSCH]; Luxembourg Socialist Workers' Party or LSAP [Alex BODRY]; dei Lenk/la Gauche (the Left); other minor parties
Political pressure groups and leaders:ABBL (bankers' association); ALEBA (financial sector trade union); Centrale Paysanne (federation of agricultural producers); CEP (professional sector chamber); CGFP (trade union representing civil service); Chambre de Commerce (Chamber of Commerce); Chambre des Metiers (Chamber of Artisans); FEDIL (federation of industrialists); Greenpeace (environment protection); LCGP (center-right trade union); Mouvement Ecologique (protection of ecology); OGBL (center-left trade union)
International organization participation:ACCT, ADB (nonregional members), Australia Group, Benelux, CE, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNRWA, UPU, WCL, WCO, WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Joseph WEYLAND
chancery: 2200 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-4171/72
FAX: [1] (202) 328-8270
consulate(s) general: New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Ann WAGNER
embassy: 22 Boulevard Emmanuel Servais, L-2535 Luxembourg City
mailing address: American Embassy Luxembourg, Unit 1410, APO AE 09126-1410 (official mail); American Embassy Luxembourg, PSC 9, Box 9500, APO AE 09123 (personal mail)
telephone: [352] 46 01 23
FAX: [352] 46 14 01
Flag description:three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and light blue; similar to the flag of the Netherlands, which uses a darker blue and is shorter; design was based on the flag of France
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:This stable, high-income economy - benefiting from its proximity to France, Belgium, and Germany - features solid growth, low inflation, and low unemployment. The industrial sector, initially dominated by steel, has become increasingly diversified to include chemicals, rubber, and other products. Growth in the financial sector, which now accounts for about 28% of GDP, has more than compensated for the decline in steel. Most banks are foreign-owned and have extensive foreign dealings. Agriculture is based on small family-owned farms. The economy depends on foreign and cross-border workers for about 60% of its labor force. Although Luxembourg, like all EU members, suffered from the global economic slump in the early part of this decade, the country continues to enjoy an extraordinarily high standard of living - GDP per capita ranks first in the world. After two years of strong economic growth in 2006-07, Luxembourg's economy probably will slow in 2008 as a result of turmoil in the world financial markets, but growth will remain above the European average.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$38.79 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$47.65 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:5% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$80,800 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 1%
industry: 13%
services: 86% (2005 est.)
Labor force:205,000 of whom 121,600 are foreign cross-border workers commuting primarily from France, Belgium, and Germany (2007 est.)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 1%
industry: 13%
services: 86% (2004 est.)
Unemployment rate:4.4% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 3.5%
highest 10%: 23.8% (2000)
Distribution of family income—Gini index:26 (2005)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):2.1% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):17.5% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:revenues: $14.29 billion
expenditures: $13.92 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:2.6% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture—products:wine, grapes, barley, oats, potatoes, wheat, fruits; dairy products, livestock products
Industries:banking and financial services, iron and steel, information technology, telecommunications, cargo transportation, food processing, chemicals, metal products, engineering, tires, glass, aluminum, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:4.3% (2006 est.)
Electricity—production:3.156 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity—consumption:6.315 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity—exports:3.131 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity—imports:6.392 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Oil—production:0 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—consumption:64,020 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—exports:283 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—imports:61,070 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:1.356 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:1.356 billion cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:$11.3 billion (2007 est.)
Exports:$19.58 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports—commodities:machinery and equipment, steel products, chemicals, rubber products, glass
Exports—partners:Germany 19.3%, France 15.5%, Italy 9.5%, UK 9.5%, Belgium 8.8%, Spain 5.3%, Netherlands 4.5% (2006)
Imports:$26.85 billion c.i.f. (2007 est.)
Imports—commodities:minerals, metals, foodstuffs, quality consumer goods
Imports—partners:Belgium 26.3%, Germany 20.1%, China 16.7%, France 8.5%, UK 5.5%, Netherlands 4.2% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$265.1 million (2006 est.)
Debt—external:$NA
Stock of direct foreign investment—at home:$NA
Stock of direct foreign investment—abroad:$NA
Market value of publicly traded shares:$79.4 billion (2006)
Economic aid—donor:ODA, $235.6 million (2004)
Currency (code):euro (EUR)
note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries
Exchange rates:euros per US dollar - 0.7345 (2007), 0.7964 (2006), 0.8041 (2005), 0.8054 (2004), 0.886 (2003)
Fiscal year:calendar year
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:246,700 (2006)
Telephones—mobile cellular:713,800 (2006)
Telephone system:general assessment: highly developed, completely automated and efficient system, mainly buried cables
domestic: nationwide cellular telephone system; market for mobile-cellular phones is virtually saturated with roughly 150 cellular phones per 100 persons
international: country code - 352
Radio broadcast stations:AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 2 (1999)
Television broadcast stations:5 (1999)
Internet country code:.lu
Internet hosts:132,090 (2007)
Internet users:339,000 (2006)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:2 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Heliports:1 (2007)
Pipelines:gas 155 km (2007)
Railways:total: 275 km
standard gauge: 275 km 1.435-m gauge (243 km electrified) (2006)
Roadways:total: 5,227 km
paved: 5,227 km (includes 147 km of expressways) (2004)
Waterways:37 km (on Moselle River) (2007)
Merchant marine:total: 45 ships (1000 GRT or over) 682,955 GRT/858,985 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 7, chemical tanker 14, container 7, liquefied gas 2, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 4, roll on/roll off 7
foreign-owned: 44 (Belgium 9, France 14, Germany 10, Netherlands 1, UK 7, US 3) (2007)
Ports and terminals:Mertert
  
Military
  
Military branches:Army
Military service age and obligation:17 years of age for voluntary military service; soldiers under 18 are not deployed into combat or with peacekeeping missions (2004)
Manpower available for military service:males age 17-49: 110,867
females age 17-49: 108,758 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 17-49: 90,279
females age 17-49: 88,638 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:males age 18-49: 2,775
females age 17-49: 2,703 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:0.9% (2005 est.)
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:none

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