Reference > World Factbook, 2008
  PREVIOUS NEXT  
CONTENTS · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD · COUNTRY INDEX · FLAG INDEX · MAP INDEX
  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Madagascar
 
Flag of Madagascar                                Map of Madagascar
 
Background:Formerly an independent kingdom, Madagascar became a French colony in 1896, but regained its independence in 1960. During 1992-93, free presidential and National Assembly elections were held, ending 17 years of single-party rule. In 1997, in the second presidential race, Didier RATSIRAKA, the leader during the 1970s and 1980s, was returned to the presidency. The 2001 presidential election was contested between the followers of Didier RATSIRAKA and Marc RAVALOMANANA, nearly causing secession of half of the country. In April 2002, the High Constitutional Court announced RAVALOMANANA the winner. RAVALOMANANA is now in his second term following a landslide victory in the generally free and fair presidential elections of 2006.
  
Geography
  
Location:Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Mozambique
Geographic coordinates:20 00 S, 47 00 E
Map references:Africa
Area:total: 587,040 sq km
land: 581,540 sq km
water: 5,500 sq km
Area—comparative:slightly less than twice the size of Arizona
Land boundaries:0 km
Coastline:4,828 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or 100 nm from the 2,500-m deep isobath
Climate:tropical along coast, temperate inland, arid in south
Terrain:narrow coastal plain, high plateau and mountains in center
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Maromokotro 2,876 m
Natural resources:graphite, chromite, coal, bauxite, salt, quartz, tar sands, semiprecious stones, mica, fish, hydropower
Land use:arable land: 5.03%
permanent crops: 1.02%
other: 93.95% (2005)
Irrigated land:10,860 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:337 cu km (1984)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 14.96 cu km/yr (3%/2%/96%)
per capita: 804 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:periodic cyclones, drought, and locust infestation
Environment—current issues:soil erosion results from deforestation and overgrazing; desertification; surface water contaminated with raw sewage and other organic wastes; several endangered species of flora and fauna unique to the island
Environment—international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography—note:world's fourth-largest island; strategic location along Mozambique Channel
  
People
  
Population:19,448,815 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 43.9% (male 4,297,985/female 4,243,369)
15-64 years: 53% (male 5,117,874/female 5,190,032)
65 years and over: 3.1% (male 270,411/female 329,144) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 17.8 years
male: 17.6 years
female: 18 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:3.008% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:38.6 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:8.51 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.013 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.986 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.822 male(s)/female
total population: 0.992 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 57.02 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 62.09 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 51.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 62.14 years
male: 60.23 years
female: 64.1 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:5.24 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:1.7% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:140,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:7,500 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne diseases: chikungunya, malaria, and plague
water contact disease: schistosomiasis (2008)
Nationality:noun: Malagasy (singular and plural)
adjective: Malagasy
Ethnic groups:Malayo-Indonesian (Merina and related Betsileo), Cotiers (mixed African, Malayo-Indonesian, and Arab ancestry - Betsimisaraka, Tsimihety, Antaisaka, Sakalava), French, Indian, Creole, Comoran
Religions:indigenous beliefs 52%, Christian 41%, Muslim 7%
Languages:English (official), French (official), Malagasy (official)
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 68.9%
male: 75.5%
female: 62.5% (2003 est.)
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Madagascar
conventional short form: Madagascar
local long form: Republique de Madagascar/Repoblikan'i Madagasikara
local short form: Madagascar/Madagasikara
former: Malagasy Republic
Government type:republic
Capital:name: Antananarivo
geographic coordinates: 18 55 S, 47 31 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:6 provinces (faritany); Antananarivo, Antsiranana, Fianarantsoa, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara
Independence:26 June 1960 (from France)
National holiday:Independence Day, 26 June (1960)
Constitution:19 August 1992 by national referendum
Legal system:based on French civil law system and traditional Malagasy law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: President Marc RAVALOMANANA (since 6 May 2002)
head of government: Prime Minister Charles RABEMANANJARA (25 January 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 3 December 2006 (next to be held in December 2011); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: percent of vote - Marc RAVALOMANANA 54.8%, Jean LAHINIRIKO 11.7%, Roland RATSIRAKA 10.1%, Herizo RAZAFIMAHALEO 9.1%, Norbert RATSIRAHONANA 4.2%, Ny Hasina ANDRIAMANJATO 4.2%, Elia RAVELOMANANTSOA 2.6%, Pety RAKOTONIAINA 1.7%, other 1.6%
Legislative branch:bicameral legislature consists of a National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (127 seats - reduced from 160 seats by an April 2007 national referendum; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and a Senate or Senat (100 seats; two-thirds of the seats filled by regional assemblies; the remaining one-third of seats appointed by the president; to serve four-year terms)
elections: National Assembly - last held 23 September 2007 (next to be held in 2011)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - TIM 106, LEADER/Fanilo 1, independents 20
Judicial branch:Supreme Court or Cour Supreme; High Constitutional Court or Haute Cour Constitutionnelle
Political parties and leaders:Association for the Rebirth of Madagascar or AREMA [Pierrot RAJAONARIVELO]; Democratic Party for Union in Madagascar or PSDUM [Jean LAHINIRIKO]; Economic Liberalism and Democratic Action for National Recovery or LEADER/Fanilo [Herizo RAZAFIMAHALEO]; Fihaonana Party or FP [Guy-Willy RAZANAMASY]; I Love Madagascar or TIM [Marc RAVALOMANANA]; Renewal of the Social Democratic Party or RPSD [Evariste MARSON]
Political pressure groups and leaders:Committee for the Defense of Truth and Justice or KMMR; Committee for National Reconciliation or CRN [Albert Zafy]; National Council of Christian Churches or FFKM
International organization participation:ACCT, ACP, AfDB, AU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Jocelyn Bertin RADIFERA
chancery: 2374 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-5525, 5526
FAX: [1] (202) 265-3034
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador R. Niels MARQUARDT
embassy: 14-16 Rue Rainitovo, Antsahavola, Antananarivo 101
mailing address: B. P. 620, Antsahavola, Antananarivo
telephone: [261] (20) 22-212-57, 22-212-73, 22-209-56
FAX: [261] (20) 22-345-39
Flag description:two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and green with a vertical white band of the same width on hoist side
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:Having discarded past socialist economic policies, Madagascar has since the mid 1990s followed a World Bank- and IMF-led policy of privatization and liberalization. This strategy placed the country on a slow and steady growth path from an extremely low level. Agriculture, including fishing and forestry, is a mainstay of the economy, accounting for more than one-fourth of GDP and employing 80% of the population. Exports of apparel have boomed in recent years primarily due to duty-free access to the US. Deforestation and erosion, aggravated by the use of firewood as the primary source of fuel, are serious concerns. President RAVALOMANANA has worked aggressively to revive the economy following the 2002 political crisis, which triggered a 12% drop in GDP that year. Poverty reduction and combating corruption will be the centerpieces of economic policy for the next few years.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$19.95 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$7.306 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:6.3% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$1,000 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 27.3%
industry: 15.8%
services: 56.8% (2007 est.)
Labor force:7.3 million (2000)
Population below poverty line:50% (2004 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 1.9%
highest 10%: 36.6% (2001)
Distribution of family income—Gini index:47.5 (2001)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):10% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):26.3% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:revenues: $1.22 billion
expenditures: $1.555 billion (2007 est.)
Agriculture—products:coffee, vanilla, sugarcane, cloves, cocoa, rice, cassava (tapioca), beans, bananas, peanuts; livestock products
Industries:meat processing, seafood, soap, breweries, tanneries, sugar, textiles, glassware, cement, automobile assembly plant, paper, petroleum, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:6% (2007 est.)
Electricity—production:1.046 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—consumption:973.2 million kWh (2005)
Electricity—exports:0 kWh (2005)
Electricity—imports:0 kWh (2005)
Oil—production:92.18 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—consumption:17,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—exports:363.9 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—imports:17,830 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:$-1.145 billion (2007 est.)
Exports:$1.027 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports—commodities:coffee, vanilla, shellfish, sugar, cotton cloth, chromite, petroleum products
Exports—partners:France 32.1%, US 25.3%, Germany 6.1%, Italy 5%, UK 4.1% (2006)
Imports:$2.005 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports—commodities:capital goods, petroleum, consumer goods, food
Imports—partners:France 14.5%, China 12%, Iran 9.3%, Mauritius 5.6%, Hong Kong 4.7% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$745 million (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt—external:$4.6 billion (2002)
Stock of direct foreign investment—at home:$NA
Stock of direct foreign investment—abroad:$NA
Market value of publicly traded shares:$NA
Economic aid—recipient:$929.2 million (2005)
Currency (code):Madagascar ariary (MGA)
Exchange rates:Malagasy ariary per US dollar - 1,880 (2007), 2,161.4 (2006), 2,003 (2005), 1,868.9 (2004), 1,238.3 (2003)
Fiscal year:calendar year
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:129,800 (2006)
Telephones—mobile cellular:1.046 million (2006)
Telephone system:general assessment: system is above average for the region; Antananarivo's main telephone exchange modernized, but the rest of the analogue-based telephone system is poorly developed; planning to add 50,000 new private-subscriber fixed lines beginning in 2005
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile telephone density only about 7 per 100 persons
international: country code - 261; submarine cable to Bahrain; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean), 1 Intersputnik (Atlantic Ocean region)
Radio broadcast stations:AM 2 (plus a number of repeater stations), FM 9, shortwave 6 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:1 (plus 36 repeaters) (2001)
Internet country code:.mg
Internet hosts:9,734 (2007)
Internet users:110,000 (2006)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:104 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 27
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 17
under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 77
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 41
under 914 m: 34 (2007)
Railways:total: 854 km
narrow gauge: 854 km 1.000-m gauge (2006)
Roadways:total: 49,827 km
paved: 5,780 km
unpaved: 44,047 km (1999)
Waterways:600 km (2006)
Merchant marine:total: 9 ships (1000 GRT or over) 13,896 GRT/18,466 DWT
by type: cargo 5, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 2 (2007)
Ports and terminals:Antsiranana, Mahajanga, Toamasina, Toliara
  
Military
  
Military branches:People's Armed Forces: Intervention Force, Development Force, and Aeronaval Force (navy and air); National Gendarmerie
Military service age and obligation:18-50 years of age for compulsory military service; 18-month conscript service obligation (either military or equivalent civil service) (2006)
Manpower available for military service:males age 18-49: 3,542,797
females age 18-49: 3,551,447 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 18-49: 2,218,662
females age 18-49: 2,408,810 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:males age 18-49: 187,000
females age 18-49: 184,833 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:1% (2006)
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:claims Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, and Juan de Nova Island (all administered by France)
Illicit drugs:illicit producer of cannabis (cultivated and wild varieties) used mostly for domestic consumption; transshipment point for heroin

CONTENTS · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD · COUNTRY INDEX · FLAG INDEX · MAP INDEX
  PREVIOUS NEXT  
 
Loading
Click here to shop the Bartleby Bookstore.

Shakespeare · Bible · Strunk · Anatomy · Nonfiction · Quotations · Reference · Fiction · Poetry
© 1993–2014 Bartleby.com · [Top 150] · Subjects · Titles · Authors