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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Peru
 
Flag of Peru                                Map of Peru
 
Background:Ancient Peru was the seat of several prominent Andean civilizations, most notably that of the Incas whose empire was captured by the Spanish conquistadors in 1533. Peruvian independence was declared in 1821, and remaining Spanish forces defeated in 1824. After a dozen years of military rule, Peru returned to democratic leadership in 1980, but experienced economic problems and the growth of a violent insurgency. President Alberto FUJIMORI's election in 1990 ushered in a decade that saw a dramatic turnaround in the economy and significant progress in curtailing guerrilla activity. Nevertheless, the president's increasing reliance on authoritarian measures and an economic slump in the late 1990s generated mounting dissatisfaction with his regime, which led to his ouster in 2000. A caretaker government oversaw new elections in the spring of 2001, which ushered in Alejandro TOLEDO as the new head of government - Peru's first democratically elected president of Native American ethnicity. The presidential election of 2006 saw the return of Alan GARCIA who, after a disappointing presidential term from 1985 to 1990, returned to the presidency with promises to improve social conditions and maintain fiscal responsibility.
  
Geography
  
Location:Western South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Chile and Ecuador
Geographic coordinates:10 00 S, 76 00 W
Map references:South America
Area:total: 1,285,220 sq km
land: 1.28 million sq km
water: 5,220 sq km
Area—comparative:slightly smaller than Alaska
Land boundaries:total: 7,461 km
border countries: Bolivia 1,075 km, Brazil 2,995 km, Chile 171 km, Colombia 1,800 km, Ecuador 1,420 km
Coastline:2,414 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
Climate:varies from tropical in east to dry desert in west; temperate to frigid in Andes
Terrain:western coastal plain (costa), high and rugged Andes in center (sierra), eastern lowland jungle of Amazon Basin (selva)
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Nevado Huascaran 6,768 m
Natural resources:copper, silver, gold, petroleum, timber, fish, iron ore, coal, phosphate, potash, hydropower, natural gas
Land use:arable land: 2.88%
permanent crops: 0.47%
other: 96.65% (2005)
Irrigated land:12,000 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:1,913 cu km (2000)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 20.13 cu km/yr (8%/10%/82%)
per capita: 720 cu m/yr (2000)
Natural hazards:earthquakes, tsunamis, flooding, landslides, mild volcanic activity
Environment—current issues:deforestation (some the result of illegal logging); overgrazing of the slopes of the costa and sierra leading to soil erosion; desertification; air pollution in Lima; pollution of rivers and coastal waters from municipal and mining wastes
Environment—international agreements:party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography—note:shares control of Lago Titicaca, world's highest navigable lake, with Bolivia; a remote slope of Nevado Mismi, a 5,316 m peak, is the ultimate source of the Amazon River
  
People
  
Population:28,674,757 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 30.3% (male 4,427,080/female 4,271,390)
15-64 years: 64.2% (male 9,267,642/female 9,150,816)
65 years and over: 5.4% (male 734,533/female 823,296) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 25.5 years
male: 25.2 years
female: 25.8 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:1.289% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:20.09 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:6.21 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:-0.99 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.036 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.013 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.892 male(s)/female
total population: 1.013 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 29.96 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 32.47 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 27.34 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 70.14 years
male: 68.33 years
female: 72.04 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:2.46 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:0.5% (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:82,000 (2003 est.)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:4,200 (2003 est.)
Major infectious diseases:degree of risk: very high
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial, hepatitis A, and typhoid fever
vectorborne disease: dengue fever, malaria, Oroya fever, and yellow fever
water contact disease: leptospirosis (2008)
Nationality:noun: Peruvian(s)
adjective: Peruvian
Ethnic groups:Amerindian 45%, mestizo (mixed Amerindian and white) 37%, white 15%, black, Japanese, Chinese, and other 3%
Religions:Roman Catholic 81%, Seventh Day Adventist 1.4%, other Christian 0.7%, other 0.6%, unspecified or none 16.3% (2003 est.)
Languages:Spanish (official), Quechua (official), Aymara, and a large number of minor Amazonian languages
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 87.7%
male: 93.5%
female: 82.1% (2004 est.)
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Peru
conventional short form: Peru
local long form: Republica del Peru
local short form: Peru
Government type:constitutional republic
Capital:name: Lima
geographic coordinates: 12 03 S, 77 03 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:25 regions (regiones, singular - region) and 1 province* (provincia); Amazonas, Ancash, Apurimac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Callao, Cusco, Huancavelica, Huanuco, Ica, Junin, La Libertad, Lambayeque, Lima, Lima*, Loreto, Madre de Dios, Moquegua, Pasco, Piura, Puno, San Martin, Tacna, Tumbes, Ucayali
Independence:28 July 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday:Independence Day, 28 July (1821)
Constitution:29 December 1993
Legal system:based on civil law system; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction with reservations
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal and compulsory until the age of 70; note - for the first time in recent elections, members of the military and national police were eligible to vote in the 2006 elections
Executive branch:chief of state: President Alan GARCIA Perez (since 28 July 2006); First Vice President Luis GIAMPIETRI Rojas; Second Vice President Lourdes MENDOZA del Solar (since 28 July 2006); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Alan GARCIA Perez (since 28 July 2006); First Vice President Luis GIAMPIETRI Rojas; Second Vice President Lourdes MENDOZA del Solar (since 28 July 2006)
note: Prime Minister Jorge DEL CASTILLO Galvez (since 28 August 2006) does not exercise executive power; this power is in the hands of the president
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a nonconsecutive reelection); presidential and congressional elections held 9 April 2006 with runoff election held 4 June 2006; next to be held in April 2011
election results: Alan GARCIA elected president in runoff election; percent of vote - Alan GARCIA 52.5%, Ollanta HUMALA Tasso 47.5%
Legislative branch:unicameral Congress of the Republic of Peru or Congreso de la Republica del Peru (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 9 April 2006 (next to be held in April 2011)
election results: percent of vote by party - UPP 21.2%, PAP 20.6%, UN 15.3%, AF 13.1%, FC 7.1%, PP 4.1%, RN 4.0%, other 14.6%; seats by party - UPP 45, PAP 36, UN 17, AF 13, FC 5, PP 2, RN 2
Judicial branch:Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (judges are appointed by the National Council of the Judiciary)
Political parties and leaders:Alliance For Progress (Alianza Para El Progreso) [Cesar ACUNA Peralta]; Alliance For The Future (Alianza Por El Futuro) or AF (a coalition of pro-FUJIMORI parties including Cambio 90, Nueva Mayoria, and Si Cumple); Centrist Front (Frente Del Centro) or FC (a coalition of Accion Popular, Somos Peru, and Coordinadora Nacional de Independientes); Independent Moralizing Front (Frente Independiente Moralizador) or FIM; National Renovation Party (Partido Renovacion Nacional) [Rafael REY]; National Restoration (Restauracion Nacional) or RN [Humberto LAY Sun]; National Unity (Unidad Nacional) or UN (a coalition of Partido Popular Cristiano and Partido Solidaridad Nacional) [Lourdes FLORES Nano]; Peru Possible (Peru Posible) or PP [Alejandro TOLEDO Manrique]; Peruvian Aprista Party (Partido Aprista Peruano) or PAP [Alan GARCIA] (also referred to by its original name Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana or APRA); Peruvian Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista Peruano) or PNP [Ollanta HUMALA Tasso]; Union for Peru (Union por el Peru) or UPP [Aldo ESTRADA Choque]
Political pressure groups and leaders:leftist guerrilla groups include Shining Path [Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Gabriel MACARIO (top leader at-large)]; Tupac Amaru Revolutionary Movement or MRTA [Victor POLAY (imprisoned), Hugo AVALLENEDA Valdez (top leader at-large)]
International organization participation:APEC, CAN, CSN, FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMEE, UNMIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Felipe ORTIZ de Zevallos
chancery: 1700 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 833-9860 through 9869
FAX: [1] (202) 659-8124
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Denver, Hartford, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Paterson (New Jersey), San Francisco, Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador J. Curtis STRUBLE
embassy: Avenida La Encalada, Cuadra 17s/n, Surco, Lima 33
mailing address: P. O. Box 1995, Lima 1; American Embassy (Lima), APO AA 34031-5000
telephone: [51] (1) 434-3000
FAX: [51] (1) 618-2397
Flag description:three equal, vertical bands of red (hoist side), white, and red with the coat of arms centered in the white band; the coat of arms features a shield bearing a vicuna, cinchona tree (the source of quinine), and a yellow cornucopia spilling out gold coins, all framed by a green wreath
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:Peru's economy reflects its varied geography - an arid coastal region, the Andes further inland, and tropical lands bordering Colombia and Brazil. Abundant mineral resources are found in the mountainous areas, and Peru's coastal waters provide excellent fishing grounds. However, overdependence on minerals and metals subjects the economy to fluctuations in world prices, and a lack of infrastructure deters trade and investment. After several years of inconsistent economic performance, the Peruvian economy grew by more than 4% per year during the period 2002-06, with a stable exchange rate and low inflation. Growth jumped to 7.5% in 2007, driven by higher world prices for minerals and metals. Risk premiums on Peruvian bonds on secondary markets reached historically low levels in late 2004, reflecting investor optimism regarding the government's prudent fiscal policies and openness to trade and investment. Despite the strong macroeconomic performance, underemployment and poverty have stayed persistently high. Growth prospects depend on exports of minerals, textiles, and agricultural products, and by expectations for the Camisea natural gas megaproject and for other promising energy projects. Upon taking office, President GARCIA announced Sierra Exportadora, a program aimed at promoting economic growth in Peru's southern and central highlands.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$217.5 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$101.5 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:7.5% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$7,600 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 8.4%
industry: 25.6%
services: 66% (2007 est.)
Labor force:9.419 million (2007 est.)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 9%
industry: 18%
services: 73% (2001)
Unemployment rate:7.4% in metropolitan Lima; widespread underemployment (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:44.5% (2006)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 1.3%
highest 10%: 40.9% (2003)
Distribution of family income—Gini index:52 (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):3.5% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):20.8% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:revenues: $30.35 billion
expenditures: $29.8 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:29.3% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture—products:asparagus, coffee, cotton, sugarcane, rice, potatoes, corn, plantains, grapes, oranges, coca; poultry, beef, dairy products; fish, guinea pigs
Industries:mining and refining of minerals; steel, metal fabrication; petroleum extraction and refining, natural gas; fishing and fish processing, textiles, clothing, food processing
Industrial production growth rate:5% (2007 est.)
Electricity—production:24.97 billion kWh (2005 est.)
Electricity—consumption:22.59 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—exports:0 kWh (2005)
Electricity—imports:0 kWh (2005)
Oil—production:110,700 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—consumption:166,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—exports:53,040 bbl/day (2004 est.)
Oil—imports:121,500 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:929.6 million bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:1.515 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:1.515 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:236.9 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:$2.045 billion (2007 est.)
Exports:$27.14 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports—commodities:copper, gold, zinc, crude petroleum and petroleum products, coffee, potatoes, asparagus, textiles, guinea pigs
Exports—partners:US 24.1%, China 9.6%, Switzerland 7.1%, Canada 6.8%, Chile 6%, Japan 5.2% (2006)
Imports:$18.75 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports—commodities:petroleum and petroleum products, plastics, machinery, vehicles, iron and steel, wheat, paper
Imports—partners:US 16.5%, China 10.3%, Brazil 10.3%, Ecuador 7.2%, Colombia 6.1%, Chile 5.8%, Argentina 4.8%, Mexico 4% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$24.06 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt—external:$27.81 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment—at home:$19.36 billion (2006 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment—abroad:$1.476 billion (2006 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:$59.66 billion (2006)
Economic aid—recipient:$397.8 million (2005)
Currency (code):nuevo sol (PEN)
Exchange rates:nuevo sol per US dollar - 3.1731 (2007), 3.2742 (2006), 3.2958 (2005), 3.4132 (2004), 3.4785 (2003)
Fiscal year:calendar year
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:2.332 million (2006)
Telephones—mobile cellular:8.5 million (2006)
Telephone system:general assessment: adequate for most requirements
domestic: fixed-line teledensity is only about 8 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity, spurred by competition among multiple providers, has increased to about 30 telephones per 100 persons; nationwide microwave radio relay system and a domestic satellite system with 12 earth stations
international: country code - 51; the South America-1 (SAM-1) and Pan American (PAN-AM) submarine cable systems provide links to parts of Central and South America, the Caribbean, and US; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:AM 472, FM 198, shortwave 189 (1999)
Television broadcast stations:13 (plus 112 repeaters) (1997)
Internet country code:.pe
Internet hosts:270,193 (2007)
Internet users:6.1 million (2006)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:237 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 54
over 3,047 m: 6
2,438 to 3,047 m: 20
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 11
under 914 m: 3 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 183
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 24
914 to 1,523 m: 40
under 914 m: 117 (2007)
Heliports:1 (2007)
Pipelines:gas 1,181 km; gas/liquid petroleum gas 61 km; liquid natural gas 106 km; liquid petroleum gas 517 km; oil 1,749 km; refined products 13 km (2007)
Railways:total: 1,989 km
standard gauge: 1,726 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 263 km 0.914-m gauge (2006)
Roadways:total: 78,829 km
paved: 11,351 km (includes 276 km of expressways)
unpaved: 67,478 km (2004)
Waterways:8,808 km
note: 8,600 km of navigable tributaries of Amazon system and 208 km of Lago Titicaca (2007)
Merchant marine:total: 6 ships (1000 GRT or over) 76,220 GRT/119,615 DWT
by type: cargo 3, petroleum tanker 3
foreign-owned: 1 (US 1)
registered in other countries: 16 (Belize 1, Panama 15) (2007)
Ports and terminals:Callao, Iquitos, Matarani, Paita, Pucallpa, Yurimaguas; note - Iquitos, Pucallpa, and Yurimaguas are on the upper reaches of the Amazon and its tributaries
  
Military
  
Military branches:Peruvian Army (Ejercito Peruano), Peruvian Navy (Marina de Guerra del Peru, MGP (includes naval air, naval infantry, and coast guard)), Peruvian Air Force (Fuerza Aerea del Peru, FAP) (2007)
Military service age and obligation:18-30 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 1999 (2004)
Manpower available for military service:males age 18-49: 6,647,874
females age 18-49: 6,544,408 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 18-49: 4,938,417
females age 18-49: 5,278,511 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:males age 18-49: 277,105
females age 18-49: 269,799 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:1.5% (2006)
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:Chile and Ecuador rejected Peru's November 2005 unilateral legislation to shift the axis of their joint treaty-defined maritime boundaries along the parallels of latitude to equidistance lines which favor Peru; organized illegal narcotics operations in Colombia have penetrated Peru's shared border; Peru rejects Bolivia's claim to restore maritime access through a sovereign corridor through Chile along the Peruvian border
Refugees and internally displaced persons:IDPs: 60,000 (civil war from 1980-2000; most IDPs are indigenous peasants in Andean and Amazonian regions) (2005)
Illicit drugs:until 1996 the world's largest coca leaf producer, Peru is now the world's second largest producer of coca leaf, though it lags far behind Colombia; cultivation of coca in Peru rose 25% to 34,000 hectares in 2005; much of the cocaine base is shipped to neighboring Colombia for processing into cocaine, while finished cocaine is shipped out from Pacific ports to the international drug market; increasing amounts of base and finished cocaine, however, are being moved to Brazil and Bolivia for use in the Southern Cone or transshipped to Europe and Africa

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