Reference > World Factbook, 2008
  PREVIOUS NEXT  
CONTENTS · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD · COUNTRY INDEX · FLAG INDEX · MAP INDEX
  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Serbia
 
Flag of Serbia                                Map of Serbia
 
Background:The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was formed in 1918; its name was changed to Yugoslavia in 1929. Various paramilitary bands resisted Nazi Germany's occupation and division of Yugoslavia from 1941 to 1945, but fought each other and ethnic opponents as much as the invaders. The military and political movement headed by Josip TITO (Partisans) took full control of Yugoslavia when German and Croatian separatist forces were defeated in 1945. Although Communist, TITO's new government and his successors (he died in 1980) managed to steer their own path between the Warsaw Pact nations and the West for the next four and a half decades. In 1989, Slobodan MILOSEVIC became president of the Serbian Republic and his ultranationalist calls for Serbian domination led to the violent breakup of Yugoslavia along ethnic lines. In 1991, Croatia, Slovenia, and Macedonia declared independence, followed by Bosnia in 1992. The remaining republics of Serbia and Montenegro declared a new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (FRY) in April 1992 and under MILOSEVIC's leadership, Serbia led various military campaigns to unite ethnic Serbs in neighboring republics into a "Greater Serbia." These actions led to Yugoslavia being ousted from the UN in 1992, but Serbia continued its - ultimately unsuccessful - campaign until signing the Dayton Peace Accords in 1995. MILOSEVIC kept tight control over Serbia and eventually became president of the FRY in 1997. In 1998, a small-scale ethnic Albanian insurgency in the formerly autonomous Serbian province of Kosovo provoked a Serbian counterinsurgency campaign that resulted in massacres and massive expulsions of ethnic Albanians living in Kosovo by FRY forces and Serb paramilitaries. The MILOSEVIC government's rejection of a proposed international settlement led to NATO's bombing of Serbia in the spring of 1999 and to the eventual withdrawal of Serbian military and police forces from Kosovo in June 1999. UNSC Resolution 1244 in June 1999 authorized the stationing of a NATO-led force (KFOR) in Kosovo to provide a safe and secure environment for the region's ethnic communities, created a UN interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) to foster self-governing institutions, and reserved the issue of Kosovo's final status for an unspecified date in the future. In 2001, UNMIK promulgated a constitutional framework that allowed Kosovo to establish institutions of self-government and led to Kosovo's first parliamentary election. FRY elections in September 2000 led to the ouster of MILOSEVIC and installed Vojislav KOSTUNICA as president. A broad coalition of democratic reformist parties known as DOS (the Democratic Opposition of Serbia) was subsequently elected to parliament in December 2000 and took control of the government. The arrest of MILOSEVIC by DOS in 2001 allowed for his subsequent transfer to the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia in The Hague to be tried for crimes against humanity. (MILOSEVIC died at The Hague in March 2006 before the completion of his trial.) In 2001, the country's suspension from the UN was lifted, and it was once more accepted into UN organizations. In 2003, the FRY became Serbia and Montenegro, a loose federation of the two republics with a federal level parliament. Widespread violence predominantly targeting ethnic Serbs in Kosovo in March 2004 caused the international community to open negotiations on the future status of Kosovo in January 2006. In May 2006, Montenegro invoked its right under the Constitutional Charter of Serbia and Montenegro to hold a referendum on independence from the state union. The referendum was successful, and Montenegro declared itself an independent nation on 3 June 2006. Two days later, Serbia declared that it was the successor state to the union of Serbia and Montenegro. In October 2006, the Serbian parliament unanimously approved - and a referendum confirmed - a new constitution for the country.
  
Geography
  
Location:Southeastern Europe, between Macedonia and Hungary
Geographic coordinates:44 00 N, 21 00 E
Map references:Europe
Area:total: 77,474 sq km
land: 77,474 sq km
water: 0 sq km
Area—comparative:slightly smaller than South Carolina
Land boundaries:total: 2,026.3 km
border countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina 302 km, Bulgaria 318 km, Croatia 241 km, Hungary 151 km, Kosovo 351.6 km, Macedonia 62.3 km, Montenegro 124.4 km, Romania 476 km
Coastline:0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:none (landlocked)
Climate:in the north, continental climate (cold winters and hot, humid summers with well distributed rainfall); in other parts, continental and Mediterranean climate (relatively cold winters with heavy snowfall and hot, dry summers and autumns)
Terrain:extremely varied; to the north, rich fertile plains; to the east, limestone ranges and basins; to the southeast, ancient mountains and hills
Elevation extremes:lowest point: NA
highest point: Midzor 2,169 m
Natural resources:oil, gas, coal, iron ore, copper, zinc, antimony, chromite, gold, silver, magnesium, pyrite, limestone, marble, salt, arable land
Land use:arable land: NA
permanent crops: NA
other: NA
Irrigated land:NA
Total renewable water resources:208.5 cu km (note - includes Kosovo) (2003)
Natural hazards:destructive earthquakes
Environment—current issues:air pollution around Belgrade and other industrial cities; water pollution from industrial wastes dumped into the Sava which flows into the Danube
Environment—international agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography—note:controls one of the major land routes from Western Europe to Turkey and the Near East
  
People
  
Population:10,150,265 (July 2007 est.)
note: all population data includes Kosovo
Median age:total: 37.3 years
male: 35.9 years
female: 38.8 years (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 75.06 years
male: 72.49 years
female: 77.86 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:1.69 children born/woman (2007 est.)
Major infectious diseases:degree of risk: intermediate
food or waterborne diseases: bacterial diarrhea and hepatitis A
vectorborne disease: Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever
note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact with birds (2008)
Nationality:noun: Serb(s)
adjective: Serbian
Ethnic groups:Serb 82.9%, Hungarian 3.9%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.4%, Yugoslavs 1.1%, Bosniaks 1.8%, Montenegrin 0.9%, other 8% (2002 census)
Religions:Serbian Orthodox 85%, Catholic 5.5%, Protestant 1.1%, Muslim 3.2%, unspecified 2.6%, other, unknown, or atheist 2.6% (2002 census)
Languages:Serbian 88.3% (official), Hungarian 3.8%, Bosniak 1.8%, Romany (Gypsy) 1.1%, other 4.1%, unknown 0.9% (2002 census)
note: Romanian, Hungarian, Slovak, Ukrainian, and Croatian all official in Vojvodina
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.4%
male: 98.9%
female: 94.1% (2003 census)
note: includes Montenegro
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Serbia
conventional short form: Serbia
local long form: Republika Srbija
local short form: Srbija
former: People's Republic of Serbia, Socialist Republic of Serbia
Government type:republic
Capital:name: Belgrade
geographic coordinates: 44 50 N, 20 30 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:161 municipalities (opcstine, singular - opcstina)
Serbia Proper: Beograd: Barajevo, Cukavica, Grocka, Lazarevac, Mladnovac, Novi Beograd, Obrenovac, Palilula, Rakovica, Savski Venac, Sopot, Stari Grad, Surcin, Vozdovac, Vracar, Zemun, Zrezdara; Borski Okrug: Bor, Kladovo, Majdanpek, Negotin; Branicevski Okrug: Golubac, Kucevo, Malo Crnice, Petrovac, Pozarevac, Veliko Gradiste, Zabari, Zagubica; Jablanicki Okrug: Bojnik, Crna Trava, Lebane, Leskovac, Medvedja, Vlasotince; Kolubarski Okrug: Lajkovac, Ljig, Mionica, Osecina, Ub, Valjevo; Macvanski Okrug: Bogatic, Koceljeva, Krupanj, Ljubovija, Loznica, Mali Zvornik, Sabac, Vladimirci; Moravicki Okrug: Cacak, Gornkji Milanovac, Ivanjica, Lucani; Nisavski Okrug: Aleksinac, Doljevac, Gadzin Han, Merosina, Nis, Razanj, Svrljig; Pcinjski Okrug: Bosilegrad, Bujanovac, Presevo, Surdulica, Trgoviste, Vladicin Han, Vranje; Pirotski Okrug: Babusnica, Bela Palanka, Dimitrovgrad, Pirot; Podunavski Okrug: Smederevo, Smederevskia Palanka, Velika Plana; Pomoravski Okrug: Cuprija, Despotovac, Jagodina, Paracin, Rckovac, Svilajnac; Rasinski Okrug: Aleksandrovac, Brus, Cicevac, Krusevac, Trstenik, Varvarin; Raski Okrug: Kraljevo, Novi Pazar, Raska, Tutin, Vrnjacka Banja; Sumadijski Okrug: Arandjelovac, Batocina, Knic, Kragujevac, Lapovo, Raca, Topola; Toplicki Okrug: Blace, Kursumlija, Prokuplje, Zitoradja; Zajecarski Okrug: Boljevac, Knjazevac, Sokobanja, Zalecar; Zlatiborski Okrug: Arilje, Bajina Basta, Cajetina, Kosjeric, Nova Varos, Pozega, Priboj, Prijepolje, Sjenica, Uzice;
Vojvodina Autonomous Province: Juzno-Backi Okrug: Backi Petrovac, Beocin, Novi Sad, Sremski Karlovci, Temerin, Titel, Zabalj; Juzno Banatski Okrug: Alibunar, Bela Crkva, Kovacica, Kovin, Opovo, Pancevo, Plandiste, Vrsac; Severno-Backi Okrug: Backa Topola, Mali Idjos, Subotica; Severno-Banatski Okrug: Ada, Coka, Kanjiza, Kikinda, Novi Knezevac, Senta; Srednje-Banatski Okrug: Nova Crnja, Novi Becej, Secanj, Zitiste, Zrenjanin; Sremski Okrug: Indjija, Irig, Pecinci, Ruma, Sid, Sremska Mitrovica, Stara Pazova; Zapadno-Backi Okrug: Apatin, Kula, Odzaci, Sombor;
Independence:5 June 2006 (from Serbia and Montenegro)
National holiday:National Day, 15 February
Constitution:adopted 8 November 2006; effective 10 November 2006
Legal system:based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: President Boris TADIC (since 11 July 2004);
head of government: Prime Minister Vojislav KOSTUNICA (since 3 March 2004);
cabinet: Federal Ministries act as cabinet;
elections: president elected by direct vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 3 February 2008 (next to be held in 2013); prime minister elected by the Assembly
election results: Boris TADIC elected president in the second round of voting; Boris TADIC received 51.2% of the vote and Tomislav NIKOLIC 48.8%
Legislative branch:unicameral National Assembly (250 seats; deputies elected by direct vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held on 21 January 2007 (next to be held in 2011)
election results: Serbia National Assembly: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - SRS 81, DS 64, DSS-NS 47, G17 Plus 19, SPS 16, LDP Coalition 15, SVM 3, KZS 2, URS 1, KAPD 1, RP 1
Judicial branch:Constitutional Court, Supreme Court (to become court of cassation under new constitution), appellate courts, district courts, municipal courts
Political parties and leaders:Coalition for Sandzak or KZS [Sulejman UGLJANIN]; Democratic Party of Albanians or PDSh [Ragmi MUSTAFA]; Democratic Party of Serbia or DSS [Vojislav KOSTUNICA]; Democratic Party or DS [Boris TADIC]; Democratic Union of the Valley or BDL [Skender DESTANI]; Force of Serbia Movement or PSS [Bogoljub KARIC]; G17 Plus [Mladjan DINKIC]; League of Vojvodina Hungarians or SVM [Istvan PASTOR]; Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Cedomir JOVANOVIC]; Movement for Democratic Progress of LPD [Jonuz MUSLIU]; New Serbia or NS [Velimir ILIC]; Party of Democratic Action or PVD [Riza HALIMI]; Roma Party or RP [Srdjan SAJN]; Serbian Radical Party or SRS [Vojislav SESELJ (currently on trial at The Hague), but Tomislav NIKOLIC is acting leader]; Socialist Party of Serbia or SPS [Ivica DACIC]; Union of Roma of Serbia or URS [Rajko DJURIC]
International organization participation:ABEDA, BIS, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, FAO, G-9, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD (suspended), IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, MONUC, NAM (observer), OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCL, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Ivan VUJACIC
chancery: 2134 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-0333
FAX: [1] (202) 332-3933
consulate(s) general: Chicago, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Cameron MUNTER
embassy: Kneza Milosa 50, 11000 Belgrade
mailing address: 5070 Belgrade Place, Washington, DC 20521-5070
telephone: [381] (11) 361-9344
FAX: [381] (11) 361-8230
note: there is a branch office in Pristina at 30 Nazim Hikmet 38000 Prstina, Kososvo; telephone: [381] (38) 5959-3000; FAX:[381] (38) 549-890
Flag description:three equal horizontal stripes of red (top), blue, and white; charged with the coat of arms of Serbia shifted slightly to the hoist side
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:MILOSEVIC-era mismanagement of the economy, an extended period of economic sanctions, and the damage to Yugoslavia's infrastructure and industry during the NATO airstrikes in 1999 left the economy only half the size it was in 1990. After the ousting of former Federal Yugoslav President MILOSEVIC in October 2000, the Democratic Opposition of Serbia (DOS) coalition government implemented stabilization measures and embarked on a market reform program. After renewing its membership in the IMF in December 2000, a down-sized Yugoslavia continued to reintegrate into the international community by rejoining the World Bank (IBRD) and the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD). A World Bank-European Commission sponsored Donors' Conference held in June 2001 raised $1.3 billion for economic restructuring. In November 2001, the Paris Club agreed to reschedule the country's $4.5 billion public debt and wrote off 66% of the debt. In July 2004, the London Club of private creditors forgave $1.7 billion of debt just over half the total owed. Belgrade has made only minimal progress in restructuring and privatizing its holdings in major sectors of the economy, including energy and telecommunications. It has made halting progress towards EU membership and is currently pursuing a Stabilization and Association Agreement with Brussels. Serbia is also pursuing membership in the World Trade Organization. Unemployment remains an ongoing political and economic problem.
note: economic data for Serbia currently reflects information for the former Serbia and Montenegro, including Kosovo, unless otherwise noted; data for Serbia alone will be added when available
GDP (purchasing power parity):$56.89 billion
note: data for Serbia includes Kosovo (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$41 billion for Serbia alone (excludes Kosovo) (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:5.9% for Serbia alone (excludes Kosovo) (2005 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$7,700 for Serbia (includes Kosovo) (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 12.3%
industry: 24.2%
services: 63.5% (2007 est.)
Labor force:2.961 million for Serbia (includes Kosovo) (2002 est.)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 30%
industry: 46%
services: 24%
note: excludes Kosovo and Montenegro (2002)
Unemployment rate:18.8% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:30%
note: data covers the former Serbia and Montenegro (1999 est.)
Distribution of family income—Gini index:30 (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):8.9% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):20.1% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:revenues: $17.34 billion
expenditures: $17.54 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:40% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture—products:wheat, maize, sugar beets, sunflower, beef, pork, milk
Industries:sugar, agricultural machinery, electrical and communication equipment, paper and pulp, lead, transportation equipment
Industrial production growth rate:1.4% (2006 est.)
Electricity—production:33.87 billion kWh (excludes Kosovo and Montenegro) (2004)
Electricity—consumption:NA
Electricity—exports:12.05 billion kWh (excludes Kosovo; exported to Montenegro) (2004)
Electricity—imports:11.23 billion kWh (excludes Kosovo; imports from Montenegro) (2004)
Oil—production:14,660 bbl/day (2003)
Oil—consumption:85,000 bbl/day (2003 est.)
Oil—exports:NA bbl/day
Oil—imports:NA bbl/day
Oil—proved reserves:77.5 million bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:650 million cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:2.55 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:2.1 billion cu m
note: includes Montenegro (2004 est.)
Natural gas—proved reserves:46.17 billion cu m (1 January 2006)
Current account balance:$-2.451 billion (2005 est.)
Exports:$3.49 billion (excludes Kosovo and Montenegro) (2007 est.)
Exports—commodities:manufactured goods, food and live animals, machinery and transport equipment
Imports:$10.58 billion (excludes Kosovo and Montenegro) (2005 est.)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$14 billion (2007 est.)
Debt—external:$28.24 billion (includes Montenegro) (2007 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment—at home:$11.95 billion (2006 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment—abroad:$NA
Market value of publicly traded shares:$5.409 billion (2005)
Economic aid—recipient:$2 billion pledged in 2001 to Serbia and Montenegro (disbursements to follow over several years; aid pledged by EU and US has been placed on hold because of lack of cooperation by Serbia in handing over General Ratko MLADIC to the criminal court in The Hague)
Currency (code):Serbian Dinar (RSD)
Exchange rates:Serbian dinars per US dollar - 54.5 (2007), 59.98 (2006)
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:2.719 million (2006)
Telephones—mobile cellular:6.644 million (2006)
Telephone system:general assessment: modernization of the telecommunications network has been slow as a result of damage stemming from the 1999 war and transition to a competitive market-based system; network was only 65% digitalized in 2005
domestic: teledensity remains below the average for neighboring states; GSM wireless service, available through multiple providers with national coverage, is growing very rapidly; best telecommunications service limited to urban centers
international: country code - 381
Radio broadcast stations:153 (station types NA) (2001)
Internet country code:.rs
Internet hosts:NA
Internet users:1.4 million (2006)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:39 (note - includes Kosovo) (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 16
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 4 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 23
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 12 (2007)
Heliports:2 (2007)
Pipelines:gas 1,921 km; oil 393 km (2007)
Railways:total: 3,379 km (note - excludes Kosovo)
standard gauge: 3,379 km 1.435-m gauge (electrified 1,254 km) (2006)
Roadways:total: 37,841 km (note - excludes Kosovo)
paved: 32,100 km
unpaved: 5,741 km (2006)
Waterways:587 km (primarily on Danube and Sava rivers) (2005)
  
Military
  
Military branches:Serbian Armed Forces (Vojska Srbije, VS): Land Forces Command (includes Serbian naval force, consisting of a river flotilla on the Danube), Joint Operations Command, Air and Air Defense Forces Command (2007)
Military service age and obligation:19-35 years of age for compulsory military service; under a state of war or impending war, conscription can begin at age 16; conscription is to be abolished in 2010; 9-month service obligation, with a reserve obligation to age 60 for men and 50 for women (2007)
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:Serbia with several other states protest the U.S. and other states' recognition of Kosovo's declaring itself as a sovereign and independent state in February 2008; ethnic Serbian municipalities along Kosovo's northern border challenge final status of Kosovo-Serbia boundary; several thousand NATO-led KFOR peacekeepers under UNMIK authority continue to keep the peace within Kosovo between the ethnic Albanian majority and the Serb minority in Kosovo; Serbia delimited about half of the boundary with Bosnia and Herzegovina, but sections along the Drina River remain in dispute
Refugees and internally displaced persons:refugees (country of origin): 100,651 (Croatia); 46,951 (Bosnia and Herzegovina); 206,000 (Kosovo), note - mostly ethnic Serbs and Roma who fled Kosovo in 1999 (2008)
Illicit drugs:transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin moving to Western Europe on the Balkan route; economy vulnerable to money laundering

CONTENTS · BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORD · COUNTRY INDEX · FLAG INDEX · MAP INDEX
  PREVIOUS NEXT  
 
Loading
Click here to shop the Bartleby Bookstore.

Shakespeare · Bible · Strunk · Anatomy · Nonfiction · Quotations · Reference · Fiction · Poetry
© 1993–2014 Bartleby.com · [Top 150] · Subjects · Titles · Authors