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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Slovenia
 
Flag of Slovenia                                Map of Slovenia
 
Background:The Slovene lands were part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire until the latter's dissolution at the end of World War I. In 1918, the Slovenes joined the Serbs and Croats in forming a new multinational state, which was named Yugoslavia in 1929. After World War II, Slovenia became a republic of the renewed Yugoslavia, which though Communist, distanced itself from Moscow's rule. Dissatisfied with the exercise of power by the majority Serbs, the Slovenes succeeded in establishing their independence in 1991 after a short 10-day war. Historical ties to Western Europe, a strong economy, and a stable democracy have assisted in Slovenia's transformation to a modern state. Slovenia acceded to both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004.
  
Geography
  
Location:Central Europe, eastern Alps bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Austria and Croatia
Geographic coordinates:46 07 N, 14 49 E
Map references:Europe
Area:total: 20,273 sq km
land: 20,151 sq km
water: 122 sq km
Area—comparative:slightly smaller than New Jersey
Land boundaries:total: 1,382 km
border countries: Austria 330 km, Croatia 670 km, Hungary 102 km, Italy 280 km
Coastline:46.6 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nm
Climate:Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east
Terrain:a short coastal strip on the Adriatic, an alpine mountain region adjacent to Italy and Austria, mixed mountains and valleys with numerous rivers to the east
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Triglav 2,864 m
Natural resources:lignite coal, lead, zinc, building stone, hydropower, forests
Land use:arable land: 8.53%
permanent crops: 1.43%
other: 90.04% (2005)
Irrigated land:30 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:32.1 cu km (2005)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 0.9
per capita: 457 cu m/yr (2002)
Natural hazards:flooding and earthquakes
Environment—current issues:Sava River polluted with domestic and industrial waste; pollution of coastal waters with heavy metals and toxic chemicals; forest damage near Koper from air pollution (originating at metallurgical and chemical plants) and resulting acid rain
Environment—international agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography—note:despite its small size, this eastern Alpine country controls some of Europe's major transit routes
  
People
  
Population:2,009,245 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 13.7% (male 141,670/female 133,720)
15-64 years: 70.3% (male 712,409/female 700,844)
65 years and over: 16% (male 124,264/female 196,338) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 41 years
male: 39.4 years
female: 42.6 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:-0.065% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:9 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:10.41 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:0.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.059 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.017 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.633 male(s)/female
total population: 0.949 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 4.35 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 4.93 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3.73 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 76.53 years
male: 72.84 years
female: 80.47 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:1.26 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:less than 0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:280 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS—deaths:less than 100 (2003 est.)
Nationality:noun: Slovene(s)
adjective: Slovenian
Ethnic groups:Slovene 83.1%, Serb 2%, Croat 1.8%, Bosniak 1.1%, other or unspecified 12% (2002 census)
Religions:Catholic 57.8%, Muslim 2.4%, Orthodox 2.3%, other Christian 0.9%, unaffiliated 3.5%, other or unspecified 23%, none 10.1% (2002 census)
Languages:Slovenian 91.1%, Serbo-Croatian 4.5%, other or unspecified 4.4% (2002 census)
Literacy:definition: NA
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.6%
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Slovenia
conventional short form: Slovenia
local long form: Republika Slovenija
local short form: Slovenija
former: People's Republic of Slovenia, Socialist Republic of Slovenia
Government type:parliamentary republic
Capital:name: Ljubljana
geographic coordinates: 46 03 N, 14 31 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:182 municipalities (obcine, singular - obcina) and 11 urban municipalities* (mestne obcine , singular - mestna obcina ) Ajdovscina, Beltinci, Benedikt, Bistrica ob Sotli, Bled, Bloke, Bohinj, Borovnica, Bovec, Braslovce, Brda, Brezice, Brezovica, Cankova, Celje*, Cerklje na Gorenjskem, Cerknica, Cerkno, Cerkvenjak, Crensovci, Crna na Koroskem, Crnomelj, Destrnik, Divaca, Dobje, Dobrepolje, Dobrna, Dobrova-Horjul-Polhov Gradec, Dobrovnik-Dobronak, Dolenjske Toplice, Dol pri Ljubljani, Domzale, Dornava, Dravograd, Duplek, Gorenja Vas-Poljane, Gorisnica, Gornja Radgona, Gornji Grad, Gornji Petrovci, Grad, Grosuplje, Hajdina, Hoce-Slivnica, Hodos-Hodos, Horjul, Hrastnik, Hrpelje-Kozina, Idrija, Ig, Ilirska Bistrica, Ivancna Gorica, Izola-Isola, Jesenice, Jezersko, Jursinci, Kamnik, Kanal, Kidricevo, Kobarid, Kobilje, Kocevje, Komen, Komenda, Koper-Capodistria*, Kostel, Kozje, Kranj*, Kranjska Gora, Krizevci, Krsko, Kungota, Kuzma, Lasko, Lenart, Lendava-Lendva, Litija, Ljubljana*, Ljubno, Ljutomer, Logatec, Loska Dolina, Loski Potok, Lovrenc na Pohorju, Luce, Lukovica, Majsperk, Maribor*, Markovci, Medvode, Menges, Metlika, Mezica, Miklavz na Dravskem Polju, Miren-Kostanjevica, Mirna Pec, Mislinja, Moravce, Moravske Toplice, Mozirje, Murska Sobota*, Muta, Naklo, Nazarje, Nova Gorica*, Novo Mesto*, Odranci, Oplotnica, Ormoz, Osilnica, Pesnica, Piran-Pirano, Pivka, Podcetrtek, Podlehnik, Podvelka, Polzela, Postojna, Prebold, Preddvor, Prevalje, Ptuj*, Puconci, Race-Fram, Radece, Radenci, Radlje ob Dravi, Radovljica, Ravne na Koroskem, Razkrizje, Ribnica, Ribnica na Pohorju, Rogasovci, Rogaska Slatina, Rogatec, Ruse, Salovci, Selnica ob Dravi, Semic, Sempeter-Vrtojba, Sencur, Sentilj, Sentjernej, Sentjur pri Celju, Sevnica, Sezana, Skocjan, Skofja Loka, Skofljica, Slovenj Gradec*, Slovenska Bistrica, Slovenske Konjice, Smarje pri Jelsah, Smartno ob Paki, Smartno pri Litiji, Sodrazica, Solcava, Sostanj, Starse, Store, Sveta Ana, Sveti Andraz v Slovenskih Goricah, Sveti Jurij, Tabor, Tisina, Tolmin, Trbovlje, Trebnje, Trnovska Vas, Trzic, Trzin, Turnisce, Velenje*, Velika Polana, Velike Lasce, Verzej, Videm, Vipava, Vitanje, Vodice, Vojnik, Vransko, Vrhnika, Vuzenica, Zagorje ob Savi, Zalec, Zavrc, Zelezniki, Zetale, Ziri, Zirovnica, Zuzemberk, Zrece
note: the Government of Slovenia has reported 210 municipalities
Independence:25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday:Independence Day/Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)
Constitution:adopted 23 December 1991
Legal system:based on civil law system; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)
Executive branch:chief of state: President Danilo TURK (since 22 December 2007)
head of government: Prime Minister Janez JANSA (since 9 November 2004)
cabinet: Council of Ministers nominated by the prime minister and elected by the National Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held 21 October and 11 November 2007 (next to be held in the fall of 2012); following National Assembly elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually nominated to become prime minister by the president and elected by the National Assembly; election last held on 9 November 2004 (next National Assembly elections to be held in October 2008)
election results: Danilo TURK elected president; percent of vote - Danilo TURK 68.2%, Alojze PETERLE 31.8%; Janez JANSA elected prime minister by National Assembly vote - 57 to 27 in 2004
Legislative branch:bicameral Parliament consists of a National Assembly or Drzavni Zbor (90 seats; 40 members are directly elected and 50 are elected on a proportional basis; note - the number of directly elected and proportionally elected seats varies with each election; the constitution mandates 1 seat each for Slovenia's Hungarian and Italian minorities; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the National Council or Drzavni Svet (40 seats; members indirectly elected by an electoral college to serve five-year terms; note - this is primarily an advisory body with limited legislative powers; it may propose laws, ask to review any National Assembly decision, and call national referenda)
elections: National Assembly - last held 3 October 2004 (next to be held fall 2008)
election results: percent of vote by party - SDS 29.1%, LDS 22.8%, ZLSD 10.2%, NSi 9%, SLS 6.8%, SNS 6.3%, DeSUS 4.1%, other 11.7%; seats by party - SDS 29, LDS 23, ZLSD 10, NSi 9, SLS 7, SNS 6, DeSUS 4, Hungarian minority 1, Italian minority 1
Judicial branch:Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the Judicial Council); Constitutional Court (judges elected for nine-year terms by the National Assembly and nominated by the president)
Political parties and leaders:Liberal Democracy of Slovenia or LDS [Katarina KRESAL]; New Slovenia or NSi [Andrej BAJUK]; Slovenian Democratic Party or SDS [Janez JANSA]; Democratic Party of Pensioners of Slovenia or DeSUS [Karl ERJAVEC]; Slovene National Party or SNS [Zmago JELINCIC]; Slovene People's Party or SLS [Janez PODOBNIK]; Slovene Youth Party or SMS [Darko KRANJC]; Social Democrats or SD [Borut PAHOR] (formerly ZLSD); ZARES [Gregor Golobic]
Political pressure groups and leaders:NA
International organization participation:ACCT (observer), Australia Group, BIS, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (guest), NATO, NSG, OAS (observer), OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate partner), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Samuel ZBOGAR
chancery: 2410 California Street N.W., Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 386-6601
FAX: [1] (202) 386-6633
consulate(s) general: Cleveland, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Maryruth COLEMAN
embassy: Presernova 31, 1000 Ljubljana
mailing address: American Embassy Ljubljana, US Department of State, 7140 Ljubljana Place, Washington, DC 20521-7140
telephone: [386] (1) 200-5500
FAX: [386] (1) 200-5555
Flag description:three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red, with the Slovenian seal (a shield with the image of Triglav, Slovenia's highest peak, in white against a blue background at the center; beneath it are two wavy blue lines depicting seas and rivers, and above it are three six-pointed stars arranged in an inverted triangle, which are taken from the coat of arms of the Counts of Celje, the great Slovene dynastic house of the late 14th and early 15th centuries); the seal is in the upper hoist side of the flag centered in the white and blue bands
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:Slovenia, which on 1 January 2007 became the first 2004 European Union entrant to adopt the euro, is a model of economic success and stability for the region. With the highest per capita GDP in Central Europe, Slovenia has excellent infrastructure, a well-educated work force, and a strategic location between the Balkans and Western Europe. Privatization has lagged since 2002, and the economy has one of highest levels of state control in the EU. Structural reforms to improve the business environment have allowed for somewhat greater foreign participation in Slovenia's economy and have helped to lower unemployment. In March 2004, Slovenia became the first transition country to graduate from borrower status to donor partner at the World Bank. In December 2007, Slovenia was invited to begin the accession process for joining the OECD. Despite its economic success, foreign direct investment (FDI) in Slovenia has lagged behind the region average, and taxes remain relatively high. Furthermore, the labor market is often seen as inflexible, and legacy industries are losing sales to more competitive firms in China, India, and elsewhere.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$54.79 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$44.57 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:5.8% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$27,300 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 2.2%
industry: 33.5%
services: 64.4% (2007 est.)
Labor force:920,000 (2007 est.)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 2.5%
industry: 36%
services: 61.5% (2007)
Unemployment rate:4.6% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:12.9% (2004)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 21.4% (1998)
Distribution of family income—Gini index:24 (2005)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):5.6% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):27.6% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:revenues: $19.17 billion
expenditures: $19.41 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:25.7% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture—products:potatoes, hops, wheat, sugar beets, corn, grapes; cattle, sheep, poultry
Industries:ferrous metallurgy and aluminum products, lead and zinc smelting; electronics (including military electronics), trucks, automobiles, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools
Industrial production growth rate:10.1% (2007 est.)
Electricity—production:14.9 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity—consumption:13.71 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity—exports:4.8 billion kWh (2006)
Electricity—imports:4.07 billion kWh (2006)
Oil—production:5 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—consumption:54,000 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—exports:2,276 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—imports:55,880 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:4.795 million cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:1.078 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:1.073 billion cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:$-1.165 billion (2007 est.)
Exports:$28.18 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports—commodities:manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, food
Exports—partners:Germany 20%, Italy 13%, Croatia 9.1%, Austria 8.8%, France 6.5%, Russia 4.4% (2006)
Imports:$30.22 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports—commodities:machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, food
Imports—partners:Germany 19.8%, Italy 18.1%, Austria 11.9%, France 5.9%, Croatia 4.7% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$1.031 billion (30 September 2007 est.)
Debt—external:$40.42 billion (30 June 2007)
Stock of direct foreign investment—at home:$8.916 billion (2006 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment—abroad:$4.557 billion (2006 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:$15.18 billion (2006)
Economic aid—recipient:ODA, $484 million (2004-06)
note: in March 2004, Slovenia became the first transition country to graduate from borrower status to donor partner at the World Bank (2004-06)
Currency (code):euro (EUR)
note: on 1 January 2007, the euro became Slovenia's currency; both the tolar and the euro were in circulation from 1 January until 15 January 2007
Exchange rates:tolars per US dollar - 0.73 (2007), 190.85 (2006), 192.71 (2005), 192.38 (2004), 207.11 (2003)
note: Slovenia adopted the euro as its currency on 1 January 2007
Fiscal year:calendar year
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:837,500 (2006)
Telephones—mobile cellular:1.82 million (2006)
Telephone system:general assessment: well-developed telecommunications infrastructure
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 130 telephones per 100 persons
international: country code - 386
Radio broadcast stations:AM 10, FM 230, shortwave 0 (2006)
Television broadcast stations:31 (2006)
Internet country code:.si
Internet hosts:134,266 (2007)
Internet users:1.251 million (2006)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:14 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 6
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 4 (2007)
Pipelines:gas 840 km; oil 11 km (2007)
Railways:total: 1,229 km
standard gauge: 1,229 km 1.435-m gauge (504 km electrified) (2006)
Roadways:total: 38,451 km
paved: 38,451 km (includes 483 km of expressways) (2004)
Merchant marine:registered in other countries: 26 (Antigua and Barbuda 6, Bahamas 1, Cyprus 4, Georgia 2, Liberia 1, Malta 3, Marshall Islands 3, Singapore 1, St Vincent and The Grenadines 5) (2007)
Ports and terminals:Koper
  
Military
  
Military branches:Slovenian Army (includes air and naval forces)
Military service age and obligation:17 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription abolished in 2003 (2007)
Manpower available for military service:males age 17-49: 496,929
females age 17-49: 483,959 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 17-49: 405,593
females age 17-49: 397,167 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:males age 18-49: 12,816
females age 17-49: 12,178 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:1.7% (2005 est.)
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:the Croatia-Slovenia land and maritime boundary agreement, which would have ceded most of Piran Bay and maritime access to Slovenia and several villages to Croatia, remains unratified and in dispute; Slovenia also protests Croatia's 2003 claim to an exclusive economic zone in the Adriatic; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slovenia has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to curb illegal migration and commerce through southeastern Europe while encouraging close cross-border ties with Croatia
Illicit drugs:minor transit point for cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe, and for precursor chemicals

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