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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Tonga
 
Flag of Tonga                                Map of Tonga
 
Background:Tonga - unique among Pacific nations - never completely lost its indigenous governance. The archipelagos of "The Friendly Islands" were united into a Polynesian kingdom in 1845. Tonga became a constitutional monarchy in 1875 and a British protectorate in 1900; it withdrew from the protectorate and joined the Commonwealth of Nations in 1970. Tonga remains the only monarchy in the Pacific.
  
Geography
  
Location:Oceania, archipelago in the South Pacific Ocean, about two-thirds of the way from Hawaii to New Zealand
Geographic coordinates:20 00 S, 175 00 W
Map references:Oceania
Area:total: 748 sq km
land: 718 sq km
water: 30 sq km
Area—comparative:four times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries:0 km
Coastline:419 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate:tropical; modified by trade winds; warm season (December to May), cool season (May to December)
Terrain:most islands have limestone base formed from uplifted coral formation; others have limestone overlying volcanic base
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed location on Kao Island 1,033 m
Natural resources:fish, fertile soil
Land use:arable land: 20%
permanent crops: 14.67%
other: 65.33% (2005)
Irrigated land:NA
Natural hazards:cyclones (October to April); earthquakes and volcanic activity on Fonuafo'ou
Environment—current issues:deforestation results as more and more land is being cleared for agriculture and settlement; some damage to coral reefs from starfish and indiscriminate coral and shell collectors; overhunting threatens native sea turtle populations
Environment—international agreements:party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography—note:archipelago of 169 islands (36 inhabited)
  
People
  
Population:116,921 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 34.6% (male 20,624/female 19,779)
15-64 years: 61.2% (male 35,551/female 36,052)
65 years and over: 4.2% (male 2,087/female 2,828) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 21.3 years
male: 20.7 years
female: 21.8 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:1.847% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:23.67 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:5.2 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.043 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.986 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.738 male(s)/female
total population: 0.993 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 11.99 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 13.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 70.12 years
male: 67.6 years
female: 72.76 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:2.75 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:NA
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:NA
HIV/AIDS—deaths:NA
Nationality:noun: Tongan(s)
adjective: Tongan
Ethnic groups:Polynesian, Europeans
Religions:Christian (Free Wesleyan Church claims over 30,000 adherents)
Languages:Tongan, English
Literacy:definition: can read and write Tongan and/or English
total population: 98.9%
male: 98.8%
female: 99% (1999 est.)
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: Kingdom of Tonga
conventional short form: Tonga
local long form: Pule'anga Tonga
local short form: Tonga
former: Friendly Islands
Government type:constitutional monarchy
Capital:name: Nuku'alofa
geographic coordinates: 21 08 S, 175 12 W
time difference: UTC+13 (18 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions:3 island groups; Ha'apai, Tongatapu, Vava'u
Independence:4 June 1970 (from UK protectorate)
National holiday:Emancipation Day, 4 June (1970)
Constitution:4 November 1875; revised 1 January 1967
Legal system:based on English common law
Suffrage:21 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: King George TUPOU V (since 11 September 2006)
head of government: Prime Minister Dr. Feleti SEVELE (since 11 February 2006); Deputy Prime Minister Dr. Viliami TANGI (since 16 May 2006)
cabinet: Cabinet consists of 14 members, 10 appointed by the monarch for life; four appointed from among the elected members of the Legislative Assembly, including two each from the nobles' and peoples' representatives serving three-year terms
note: there is also a Privy Council that consists of the monarch, the cabinet, and two governors
elections: none; the monarch is hereditary; prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed by the monarch
Legislative branch:unicameral Legislative Assembly or Fale Alea (32 seats - 14 reserved for cabinet ministers sitting ex officio, nine for nobles selected by the country's 33 nobles, and nine elected by popular vote; members serve three-year terms)
elections: last held on 21 March 2005 (next to be held in 2008)
election results: Peoples Representatives: percent of vote - HRDMT 70%, other 30%; seats - HRDMT 7, independents 2
Judicial branch:Supreme Court (judges are appointed by the monarch); Court of Appeal (Chief Justice and high court justices from overseas chosen and approved by Privy Council)
Political parties and leaders:People's Democratic Party [Tesina FUKO]
Political pressure groups and leaders:Human Rights and Democracy Movement Tonga or HRDMT [Rev. Simote VEA, chairman]; Public Servant's Association [Finau TUTONE]
International organization participation:ACP, ADB, C, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, ITU, ITUC, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Fekitamoeloa 'UTOIKAMANU
chancery: 250 East 51st Street, New York, NY 10022
telephone: [1] (917) 369-1025
FAX: [1] (917) 369-1024
consulate(s) general: San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US:the US does not have an embassy in Tonga; the ambassador to Fiji is accredited to Tonga
Flag description:red with a bold red cross on a white rectangle in the upper hoist-side corner
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:Tonga has a small, open, South Pacific island economy. It has a narrow export base in agricultural goods. Squash, coconuts, bananas, and vanilla beans are the main crops, and agricultural exports make up two-thirds of total exports. The country must import a high proportion of its food, mainly from New Zealand. The country remains dependent on external aid and remittances from Tongan communities overseas to offset its trade deficit. Tourism is the second-largest source of hard currency earnings following remittances. The government is emphasizing the development of the private sector, especially the encouragement of investment, and is committing increased funds for health and education. Tonga has a reasonably sound basic infrastructure and well-developed social services. High unemployment among the young, a continuing upturn in inflation, pressures for democratic reform, and rising civil service expenditures are major issues facing the government.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$178.5 million (2004 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$219 million (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:2.4% (2005 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$2,200 (2005 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 23%
industry: 27%
services: 50% (FY03/04 est.)
Labor force:33,910 (2003)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 65%
industry and services: 35% (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate:13% (FY03/04 est.)
Population below poverty line:24% (FY03/04)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):11.1% (2005 est.)
Budget:revenues: $56.97 million
expenditures: $83.88 million (FY04/05)
Agriculture—products:squash, coconuts, copra, bananas, vanilla beans, cocoa, coffee, ginger, black pepper; fish
Industries:tourism, fishing
Industrial production growth rate:1% (2003 est.)
Electricity—production:35 million kWh (2005)
Electricity—consumption:32.55 million kWh (2005)
Electricity—exports:0 kWh (2005)
Electricity—imports:0 kWh (2005)
Oil—production:0 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—consumption:880 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—exports:0 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—imports:842.3 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:0 bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:0 cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:0 cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:$-4.321 million (FY04/05)
Exports:$22 million f.o.b. (2006)
Exports—commodities:squash, fish, vanilla beans, root crops
Exports—partners:US 39.7%, Japan 27.8%, NZ 8.2%, South Korea 7.6% (2006)
Imports:$139 million f.o.b. (2006)
Imports—commodities:foodstuffs, machinery and transport equipment, fuels, chemicals
Imports—partners:Fiji 30.3%, NZ 27.7%, US 8.2%, Australia 7.5%, France 5.7%, UK 4.7% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$40.83 million (yearend, FY04/05)
Debt—external:$80.7 million (2004)
Market value of publicly traded shares:$NA
Economic aid—recipient:$31.75 million (2005)
Currency (code):pa'anga (TOP)
Exchange rates:pa'anga per US dollar - NA (2007), 2.0277 (2006), 1.96 (2005), 1.9716 (2004), 2.142 (2003)
Fiscal year:1 July - 30 June
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:13,700 (2005)
Telephones—mobile cellular:29,900 (2005)
Telephone system:general assessment: competition between Tonga Telecommunications Corporation (TCC) and Shoreline Communications Tonga (SCT) is accelerating expansion of telecommunications; SCT recently granted authority to develop high-speed digital service for telephone, Internet, and television
domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 40 telephones per 100 persons; fully automatic switched network
international: country code - 676; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2004)
Radio broadcast stations:AM 1, FM 4, shortwave 1 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:3 (2004)
Internet country code:.to
Internet hosts:18,653 (2007)
Internet users:3,100 (2006)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:6 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 (2007)
Roadways:total: 680 km
paved: 184 km
unpaved: 496 km (1999)
Merchant marine:total: 14 ships (1000 GRT or over) 58,756 GRT/67,889 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 1, cargo 9, liquefied gas 1, livestock carrier 1, passenger/cargo 1, refrigerated cargo 1
foreign-owned: 3 (Australia 1, Switzerland 1, UK 1) (2007)
Ports and terminals:Nuku'alofa
  
Military
  
Military branches:Tonga Defense Services (TDS): Land Force (Royal Guard), Naval Force (includes Royal Marines, Air Wing) (2008)
Military service age and obligation:18 years of age (est.) (2004)
Manpower available for military service:males age 18-49: 25,420
females age 18-49: 24,827 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 18-49: 19,840
females age 18-49: 21,342 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:males age 18-49: 1,586
females age 18-49: 1,538 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:0.9% (2006 est.)
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:none

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