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  The World Factbook.  2008.
 
Turkey
 
Flag of Turkey                                Map of Turkey
 
Background:Modern Turkey was founded in 1923 from the Anatolian remnants of the defeated Ottoman Empire by national hero Mustafa KEMAL, who was later honored with the title Ataturk or "Father of the Turks." Under his authoritarian leadership, the country adopted wide-ranging social, legal, and political reforms. After a period of one-party rule, an experiment with multi-party politics led to the 1950 election victory of the opposition Democratic Party and the peaceful transfer of power. Since then, Turkish political parties have multiplied, but democracy has been fractured by periods of instability and intermittent military coups (1960, 1971, 1980), which in each case eventually resulted in a return of political power to civilians. In 1997, the military again helped engineer the ouster - popularly dubbed a "post-modern coup" - of the then Islamic-oriented government. Turkey intervened militarily on Cyprus in 1974 to prevent a Greek takeover of the island and has since acted as patron state to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus," which only Turkey recognizes. A separatist insurgency begun in 1984 by the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) - now known as the People's Congress of Kurdistan or Kongra-Gel (KGK) - has dominated the Turkish military's attention and claimed more than 30,000 lives. After the capture of the group's leader in 1999, the insurgents largely withdrew from Turkey mainly to northern Iraq. In 2004, KGK announced an end to its ceasefire and attacks attributed to the KGK increased. Turkey joined the UN in 1945 and in 1952 it became a member of NATO. In 1964, Turkey became an associate member of the European Community; over the past decade, it has undertaken many reforms to strengthen its democracy and economy enabling it to begin accession membership talks with the European Union.
  
Geography
  
Location:Southeastern Europe and Southwestern Asia (that portion of Turkey west of the Bosporus is geographically part of Europe), bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Georgia, and bordering the Aegean Sea and the Mediterranean Sea, between Greece and Syria
Geographic coordinates:39 00 N, 35 00 E
Map references:Middle East
Area:total: 780,580 sq km
land: 770,760 sq km
water: 9,820 sq km
Area—comparative:slightly larger than Texas
Land boundaries:total: 2,648 km
border countries: Armenia 268 km, Azerbaijan 9 km, Bulgaria 240 km, Georgia 252 km, Greece 206 km, Iran 499 km, Iraq 352 km, Syria 822 km
Coastline:7,200 km
Maritime claims:territorial sea: 6 nm in the Aegean Sea; 12 nm in Black Sea and in Mediterranean Sea
exclusive economic zone: in Black Sea only: to the maritime boundary agreed upon with the former USSR
Climate:temperate; hot, dry summers with mild, wet winters; harsher in interior
Terrain:high central plateau (Anatolia); narrow coastal plain; several mountain ranges
Elevation extremes:lowest point: Mediterranean Sea 0 m
highest point: Mount Ararat 5,166 m
Natural resources:coal, iron ore, copper, chromium, antimony, mercury, gold, barite, borate, celestite (strontium), emery, feldspar, limestone, magnesite, marble, perlite, pumice, pyrites (sulfur), clay, arable land, hydropower
Land use:arable land: 29.81%
permanent crops: 3.39%
other: 66.8% (2005)
Irrigated land:52,150 sq km (2003)
Total renewable water resources:234 cu km (2003)
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):total: 39.78 cu km/yr (15%/11%/74%)
per capita: 544 cu m/yr (2001)
Natural hazards:severe earthquakes, especially in northern Turkey, along an arc extending from the Sea of Marmara to Lake Van
Environment—current issues:water pollution from dumping of chemicals and detergents; air pollution, particularly in urban areas; deforestation; concern for oil spills from increasing Bosporus ship traffic
Environment—international agreements:party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Geography—note:strategic location controlling the Turkish Straits (Bosporus, Sea of Marmara, Dardanelles) that link Black and Aegean Seas; Mount Ararat, the legendary landing place of Noah's Ark, is in the far eastern portion of the country
  
People
  
Population:71,158,647 (July 2007 est.)
Age structure:0-14 years: 24.9% (male 9,034,731/female 8,703,624)
15-64 years: 68.1% (male 24,627,270/female 23,857,507)
65 years and over: 6.9% (male 2,253,383/female 2,682,132) (2007 est.)
Median age:total: 28.6 years
male: 28.4 years
female: 28.8 years (2007 est.)
Population growth rate:1.04% (2007 est.)
Birth rate:16.4 births/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Death rate:6 deaths/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Net migration rate:0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2007 est.)
Sex ratio:at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.038 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.032 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.84 male(s)/female
total population: 1.019 male(s)/female (2007 est.)
Infant mortality rate:total: 38.33 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 41.85 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 34.64 deaths/1,000 live births (2007 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:total population: 72.88 years
male: 70.43 years
female: 75.46 years (2007 est.)
Total fertility rate:1.89 children born/woman (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS—adult prevalence rate:less than 0.1%; note - no country specific models provided (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS—people living with HIV/AIDS:NA
HIV/AIDS—deaths:NA
Nationality:noun: Turk(s)
adjective: Turkish
Ethnic groups:Turkish 80%, Kurdish 20% (estimated)
Religions:Muslim 99.8% (mostly Sunni), other 0.2% (mostly Christians and Jews)
Languages:Turkish (official), Kurdish, Dimli (or Zaza), Azeri, Kabardian
note: there is also a substantial Gagauz population in the European part of Turkey
Literacy:definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 87.4%
male: 95.3%
female: 79.6% (2004 est.)
  
Government
  
Country name:conventional long form: Republic of Turkey
conventional short form: Turkey
local long form: Turkiye Cumhuriyeti
local short form: Turkiye
Government type:republican parliamentary democracy
Capital:name: Ankara
geographic coordinates: 39 56 N, 32 52 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions:81 provinces (iller, singular - ili); Adana, Adiyaman, Afyonkarahisar, Agri, Aksaray, Amasya, Ankara, Antalya, Ardahan, Artvin, Aydin, Balikesir, Bartin, Batman, Bayburt, Bilecik, Bingol, Bitlis, Bolu, Burdur, Bursa, Canakkale, Cankiri, Corum, Denizli, Diyarbakir, Duzce, Edirne, Elazig, Erzincan, Erzurum, Eskisehir, Gaziantep, Giresun, Gumushane, Hakkari, Hatay, Icel (Mersin), Igdir, Isparta, Istanbul, Izmir (Smyrna), Kahramanmaras, Karabuk, Karaman, Kars, Kastamonu, Kayseri, Kilis, Kirikkale, Kirklareli, Kirsehir, Kocaeli, Konya, Kutahya, Malatya, Manisa, Mardin, Mugla, Mus, Nevsehir, Nigde, Ordu, Osmaniye, Rize, Sakarya, Samsun, Sanliurfa, Siirt, Sinop, Sirnak, Sivas, Tekirdag, Tokat, Trabzon (Trebizond), Tunceli, Usak, Van, Yalova, Yozgat, Zonguldak
Independence:29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)
National holiday:Republic Day, 29 October (1923)
Constitution:7 November 1982
Legal system:civil law system derived from various European continental legal systems; note - member of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR), although Turkey claims limited derogations on the ratified European Convention on Human Rights; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Suffrage:18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:chief of state: President Abdullah GUL (since 28 August 2007)
head of government: Prime Minister Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN (since 14 March 2003); Deputy Prime Minister Cemil CICEK (since 29 August 2007); Deputy Prime Minister Hayati YAZICI (since 29 August 2007); Deputy Prime Minister Nazim EKREN (since 29 August 2007)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the nomination of the prime minister
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a maximum of two five-year terms; prime minister appointed by the president from among members of parliament
election results: Abdullah GUL received 339 votes in the third round of voting on 28 August 2007, after failing to garner the two thirds vote required by law in the first two rounds
note: president-elect must have a two-thirds majority of the National Assembly on the first two ballots and a simple majority on the third ballot
Legislative branch:unicameral Grand National Assembly of Turkey or Turkiye Buyuk Millet Meclisi (550 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held on 22 July 2007 (next to be held on November 2012)
election results: percent of vote by party - AKP 46.7%, CHP 20.8%, MHP 14.3%, independents 5.2%, and other 13.0%; seats by party - AKP 341, CHP 112, MHP 71, independents 26; note - seats by party as of 17 December 2007 - AKP 340, CHP 87, MHP 70, DTP 20, DSP 13, independents 6, other 12, vacant 2 (DTP entered parliament as independents; DSP entered parliament on CHP's party list); only parties surpassing the 10% threshold are entitled to parliamentary seats
Judicial branch:Constitutional Court; High Court of Appeals (Yargitay); Council of State (Danistay); Court of Accounts (Sayistay); Military High Court of Appeals; Military High Administrative Court
Political parties and leaders:Anavatan Partisi (Motherland Party) or Anavatan [Erkan MUMCU]; Democratic Left Party or DSP [Mehmet Zeki SEZER]; Democratic Society Party or DTP [Nurettin DEMIRTAS]; Felicity Party or SP [Recai KUTAN] (sometimes translated as Contentment Party); Justice and Development Party or AKP [Recep Tayyip ERDOGAN]; Nationalist Action Party or MHP [Devlet BAHCELI] (sometimes translated as Nationalist Movement Party); People's Rise Party (Halkin Yukselisi Partisi) or HYP [Yasar Nuri OZTURK]; Republican People's Party or CHP [Deniz BAYKAL]; Social Democratic People's Party or SHP [Murat KARAYALCIN]; True Path Party or DYP [Mehmet AGAR] (sometimes translated as Correct Way Party); Young Party or GP [Cem Cengiz UZAN]
note: the parties listed above are some of the more significant of the 49 parties that Turkey had on 1 December 2004
Political pressure groups and leaders:Confederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Ismail Hakki TOMBUL]; Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Suleyman CELEBI]; Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD [Omer BOLAT]; Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Salim USLU]; Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions or TISK [Tugurl KUDATGOBILIK]; Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is [Salih KILIC]; Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK [Dervis GUNDAY]; Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or TUSIAD [Omer SABANCI]; Turkish Union of Chambers of Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU]
International organization participation:ADB (nonregional members), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CE, CERN (observer), EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC, MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, SECI, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIS, UNOCI, UNOMIG, UNRWA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WEU (associate), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Nabi SENSOY
chancery: 2525 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 612-6700
FAX: [1] (202) 612-6744
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US:chief of mission: Ambassador Ross WILSON
embassy: 110 Ataturk Boulevard, Kavaklidere, 06100 Ankara
mailing address: PSC 93, Box 5000, APO AE 09823
telephone: [90] (312) 455-5555
FAX: [90] (312) 467-0019
consulate(s) general: Istanbul
consulate(s): Adana; note - there is a Consular Agent in Izmir
Flag description:red with a vertical white crescent (the closed portion is toward the hoist side) and white five-pointed star centered just outside the crescent opening
  
Economy
  
Economy—overview:Turkey's dynamic economy is a complex mix of modern industry and commerce along with a traditional agriculture sector that still accounts for more than 35% of employment. It has a strong and rapidly growing private sector, yet the state still plays a major role in basic industry, banking, transport, and communication. The largest industrial sector is textiles and clothing, which accounts for one-third of industrial employment; it faces stiff competition in international markets with the end of the global quota system. However, other sectors, notably the automotive and electronics industries, are rising in importance within Turkey's export mix. Real GNP growth has exceeded 6% in many years, but this strong expansion has been interrupted by sharp declines in output in 1994, 1999, and 2001. The economy is turning around with the implementation of economic reforms, and 2004 GDP growth reached 9%, followed by roughly 5% annual growth from 2005-07. Inflation fell to 7.7% in 2005 - a 30-year low but climbed back to 8.5% in 2007. Despite the strong economic gains from 2002-07, which were largely due to renewed investor interest in emerging markets, IMF backing, and tighter fiscal policy, the economy is still burdened by a high current account deficit and high external debt. Further economic and judicial reforms and prospective EU membership are expected to boost foreign direct investment. The stock value of FDI currently stands at about $85 billion. Privatization sales are currently approaching $21 billion. Oil began to flow through the Baku-Tblisi-Ceyhan pipeline in May 2006, marking a major milestone that will bring up to 1 million barrels per day from the Caspian to market. In 2007, Turkish financial markets weathered significant domestic political turmoil, including turbulence sparked by controversy over the selection of former Foreign Minister Abdullah GUL as Turkey's 11th president. Economic fundamentals are sound, marked by strong economic growth and foreign direct investment. Turkey's high current account deficit leaves the economy vulnerable to destabilizing shifts in investor confidence, however.
GDP (purchasing power parity):$667.7 billion (2007 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate):$482 billion (2007 est.)
GDP—real growth rate:5.1% (2007 est.)
GDP—per capita (PPP):$9,400 (2007 est.)
GDP—composition by sector:agriculture: 8.9%
industry: 30.8%
services: 59.3% (2007 est.)
Labor force:25.27 million
note: about 1.2 million Turks work abroad (2007 est.)
Labor force—by occupation:agriculture: 35.9%
industry: 22.8%
services: 41.2% (3rd quarter, 2004)
Unemployment rate:9.7% plus underemployment of 4% (2007 est.)
Population below poverty line:20% (2002)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 34.1% (2003)
Distribution of family income—Gini index:43.6 (2003)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):8.5% (2007 est.)
Investment (gross fixed):21% of GDP (2007 est.)
Budget:revenues: $137.8 billion
expenditures: $151.9 billion (2007 est.)
Public debt:58.2% of GDP (2007 est.)
Agriculture—products:tobacco, cotton, grain, olives, sugar beets, pulse, citrus; livestock
Industries:textiles, food processing, autos, electronics, mining (coal, chromite, copper, boron), steel, petroleum, construction, lumber, paper
Industrial production growth rate:4.5% (2007 est.)
Electricity—production:154.2 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—consumption:129 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—exports:1.798 billion kWh (2005)
Electricity—imports:636 million kWh (2005)
Oil—production:45,460 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—consumption:660,800 bbl/day (2005 est.)
Oil—exports:112,600 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—imports:724,400 bbl/day (2004)
Oil—proved reserves:300 million bbl (1 January 2006 est.)
Natural gas—production:860.3 million cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—consumption:26.25 billion cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—exports:0 cu m (2005 est.)
Natural gas—imports:25.48 billion cu m (2005)
Natural gas—proved reserves:8.147 billion cu m (1 January 2006 est.)
Current account balance:$-36.27 billion (2007 est.)
Exports:$110.5 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Exports—commodities:apparel, foodstuffs, textiles, metal manufactures, transport equipment
Exports—partners:Germany 11.3%, UK 8%, Italy 7.9%, US 6%, France 5.4%, Spain 4.4% (2006)
Imports:$156.9 billion f.o.b. (2007 est.)
Imports—commodities:machinery, chemicals, semi-finished goods, fuels, transport equipment
Imports—partners:Russia 12.8%, Germany 10.6%, China 6.9%, Italy 6.2%, France 5.2%, US 4.5%, Iran 4% (2006)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:$74.39 billion (31 December 2007 est.)
Debt—external:$226.4 billion (30 June 2007)
Stock of direct foreign investment—at home:$84.53 billion (2006 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment—abroad:$9.249 billion (2006 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares:$162.4 billion (2006)
Economic aid—recipient:ODA, $464 million (2005)
Currency (code):Turkish lira (TRY); old Turkish lira (TRL) before 1 January 2005
Exchange rates:Turkish liras per US dollar - 1.319 (2007), 1.4286 (2006), 1.3436 (2005), 1.4255 (2004), 1.5009 (2003)
note: on 1 January 2005 the old Turkish lira (TRL) was converted to new Turkish lira (TRY) at a rate of 1,000,000 old to 1 new Turkish lira
Fiscal year:calendar year
  
Communications
  
Telephones—main lines in use:18.978 million (2005)
Telephones—mobile cellular:52.663 million (2006)
Telephone system:general assessment: undergoing rapid modernization and expansion especially with cellular telephones
domestic: additional digital exchanges are permitting a rapid increase in subscribers; the construction of a network of technologically advanced intercity trunk lines, using both fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay, is facilitating communication between urban centers; remote areas are reached by a domestic satellite system; the number of subscribers to mobile cellular telephone service is growing rapidly
international: country code - 90; international service is provided by the SEA-ME-WE-3 submarine cable and by submarine fiber-optic cables in the Mediterranean and Black Seas that link Turkey with Italy, Greece, Israel, Bulgaria, Romania, and Russia; satellite earth stations - 12 Intelsat; mobile satellite terminals - 328 in the Inmarsat and Eutelsat systems (2002)
Radio broadcast stations:AM 16, FM 107, shortwave 6 (2001)
Television broadcast stations:635 (plus 2,934 repeaters) (1995)
Internet country code:.tr
Internet hosts:217,887 (2007)
Internet users:12.284 million (2006)
  
Transportation
  
Airports:117 (2007)
Airports—with paved runways:total: 90
over 3,047 m: 15
2,438 to 3,047 m: 33
1,524 to 2,437 m: 19
914 to 1,523 m: 19
under 914 m: 4 (2007)
Airports—with unpaved runways:total: 27
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 17 (2007)
Heliports:18 (2007)
Pipelines:gas 7,511 km; oil 3,636 km (2007)
Railways:total: 8,697 km
standard gauge: 8,697 km 1.435-m gauge (1,920 km electrified) (2006)
Roadways:total: 426,906 km
paved: 177,550 km (includes 1,892 km of expressways)
unpaved: 249,356 km (2004)
Waterways:1,200 km (2005)
Merchant marine:total: 565 ships (1000 GRT or over) 4,663,353 GRT/7,039,492 DWT
by type: bulk carrier 96, cargo 262, chemical tanker 58, combination ore/oil 1, container 30, liquefied gas 7, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 48, petroleum tanker 32, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 25, specialized tanker 1
foreign-owned: 8 (China 1, Cyprus 2, Germany 1, Italy 3, UAE 1)
registered in other countries: 470 (Albania 1, Antigua and Barbuda 7, Bahamas 5, Belize 11, Cambodia 20, Comoros 8, Cyprus 1, Dominica 9, Georgia 23, Isle of Man 2, Italy 1, Kiribati 1, North Korea 1, Liberia 7, Malta 143, Marshall Islands 41, Netherlands Antilles 12, Panama 53, Russia 70, Sierra Leone 7, Slovakia 11, St Kitts and Nevis 13, St Vincent and The Grenadines 20, Tuvalu 1, UK 2, unknown 3) (2007)
Ports and terminals:Aliaga, Diliskelesi, Izmir, Kocaeli (Izmit), Mercin Limani, Nemrut Limani
  
Military
  
Military branches:Turkish Armed Forces (TSK): Land Forces, Turkish Naval Forces (Turk Deniz Kuvvetleri, TDK; includes naval air and naval infantry), Turkish Air Force (Turk Hava Kuvvetleri, THK) (2006)
Military service age and obligation:20 years of age (2004)
Manpower available for military service:males age 20-49: 16,756,323
females age 20-49: 16,051,706 (2005 est.)
Manpower fit for military service:males age 20-49: 13,905,901
females age 20-49: 13,335,812 (2005 est.)
Manpower reaching military service age annually:males age 18-49: 679,734
females age 20-49: 659,090 (2005 est.)
Military expenditures—percent of GDP:5.3% (2005 est.)
Military—note:in the early 1990s, the Turkish Land Force was a large but badly equipped infantry force; there were 14 infantry divisions, but only one was mechanized, and out of 16 infantry brigades, only six were mechanized; a subsequent overhaul has produced highly mobile forces with greatly enhanced firepower in accordance with NATO's new strategic concept (2005)
  
Transnational Issues
  
Disputes—international:complex maritime, air, and territorial disputes with Greece in the Aegean Sea; status of north Cyprus question remains; Syria and Iraq protest Turkish hydrological projects to control upper Euphrates waters; Turkey has expressed concern over the status of Kurds in Iraq; border with Armenia remains closed over Nagorno-Karabakh
Refugees and internally displaced persons:IDPs: 1-1.2 million (fighting 1984-99 between Kurdish PKK and Turkish military; most IDPs in southeastern provinces) (2006)
Illicit drugs:key transit route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe and, to a lesser extent, the US - via air, land, and sea routes; major Turkish and other international trafficking organizations operate out of Istanbul; laboratories to convert imported morphine base into heroin exist in remote regions of Turkey and near Istanbul; government maintains strict controls over areas of legal opium poppy cultivation and over output of poppy straw concentrate; lax enforcement of money-laundering controls

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