FROM THE ACCESSION OF JAMES I TO THE RESTORATION
No authoritative bibliography exists of the historical and political writings of the period treated in these chapters (in which compositions dating from the reign of Elizabeth are only in special instances and for special reasons included), except what is to be found in part II, chapter VII, of the late S. R. Gardiner and J. Bass Mullingers Introduction to the Study of English History, 3rd ed., 1894. The chief extant collections of tracts are enumerated in Section VII, under the heading Political Pamphlets, etc. With respect to the pamphlet and other political literature of the civil war and adjacent period, as in other respects, the contributions of C. H. Firth to the Dictionary of National Biography are of unique value.
A word may be added as to an interesting publication which, although unfortunately uncompleted, covers, from its special point of view, the whole of the period treated in these chapters. Index Expurgatorius Anglicanus, published 18728, anonymously and without a title-page, and extending to five parts and 294 numbers on 290 pages, is a carefully compiled catalogue raisonné of works prohibited in England by royal proclamation, or suppressed by order of the Star chamber or High Commission court, or of the House of Commons or (more rarely) of the House of Lords. The collection, so far as it was issued, extends over the years from 1523 to 1681. The earliest book noted is Simon Fyshes Supplicacyon for the Beggers, the next is Tyndales translation of the New Testament (1525). As a matter of course, the Index in the later Tudor period includes works bearing on the succession and on the treatment of the Catholics, e.g. cardinal Allens Modest Answer to the English Persecutors (condemned 1585). The Marprelate tracts are, naturally, conspicuous; among works of literary significance, Halles Union of the two noble and illustre famelies of Lancastre, and Yorke, comes first; bishop Halls Virgidemiarum follows (1597 and 1598), with (1598) a volume containing All Ovids Elegies by C. M. (Christopher Marlowe) and Epigrams by J. D. (Sir John Davies). To the reign of James I belong Withers Abuses Stript and Whipt (1613) and Raleghs History of the World (1614), as well as the plays Eastward Hoe (1605) and A Game at Chesse (1624). Sir Robert Cottons Henry III (1627) and DAvenants and Inigo Joness masque Britannia Triumphans (1637) were prohibited in the following reign. Among publications of direct significance for the political history of the times may be mentioned Cowells Interpreter (1607); A true relation of the unjust, cruel and barbarous proceeding against the English at Amboyna (1624); Montagus Appello Caesarem (1625); Roger Mainwarings two Sermons on Religion and Allegiance (1627); Prynnes Histriomastix (1633); the contributions to the episcopal controversy of Bastwick (16357) and Burton (1636); and Baxters Holy Commonwealth (1659). Altogether, the Index notes 21 books, plays or pamphlets published under James I, 120 under Charles I and 41 under the commonwealth and protectorates. But it must not, of course, be supposed that the prohibition of pamphlets stands in any direct ratio to their production; for, the more anarchy, the more pamphlets. The year 1648 (when the army sent up its remonstrance to parliament) may be taken as an example, or, again, the masterless period of 16589. In the former, there appear to have been relatively few suppressions by authority, and, in the latter, none at all.
I. STATE PAPERS AND OTHER PUBLIC DOCUMENTS
Birch, Thomas. The Court and Times of Charles the First; illustrated by authentic and confidential letters, from various public and private collections; including Memoirs of the Mission in England of the Capuchin Friars in the service of Queen Henrietta Maria. 2 vols. 1848.
The Court and Times of James the First; being a series of Historical and Confidential Letters. Transcribed from the Originals in the British Museum, State Paper Office and Private Collections. 2 vols. 1849.
Cabala, sive Scrinia Sacra. Mysteries of State and Government in Letters of illustrious Persons and great Agents; in the Reigns of Henry the Eighth, Queen Elizabeth, King James and the late King Charls. In two Parts, in which the Secrets of Empire, and Publique manage of Affairs are contained. With many remarkable Passages nowhere else Published. 1654. (The second title is less comprehensive.)
Professes to give impartially all the materials of the secret history of the last years of James, and the earliest of Charles, and especially those concerning the actions of Buckingham, the Subtleties of Spain, and the Practises of our Home-Roman Catholics, and of some of those who were called Puritans then. Among the papers of interest new to the public were Bacons Considerations concerning the Queens Service in Ireland (undated) and a large number of letters from him and others to Buckingham. The whole is a curious medley of foreign, home, Irish, and even university affairs.
Calendar of State Papers. Domestic Series, of the Reigns of Edward VI, Mary, Elizabeth and James I. Vols. IIIVI (Elizabeth, 15911603); VIIIXI (James I, 160325); XII (Addenda, 15801625). Ed. Everett Green, M. A. 185672.
of the Reign of Charles I. Vols. IXII (162538). Ed. Bruce, J. 185869. XIII (16389). Edd. Bruce, J. and Hamilton, W. D. 1871. XIVXXII (163949). Ed. Hamilton, W. D. 187393. Addenda (162549). Edd. Hamilton, W. D. and Lomas, S. C. 1897. This additional volume includes several letters from Buckingham (including a love letter supposed to be the queen), from Conway, Sir Thomas Roe and others.
Calendar of State Papers. Domestic Series, of the Commonwealth and Protectorate (164960). Ed. Everett Green, M. A. 15 vols. 187586.
Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series. America and West Indies (15741660). Ed. Sainsbury, W. N. 1860.
Calendar of the Proceedings of the Committee for Compounding etc. (164360). Ed. Everett Green, M. A. 5 parts. 1889.
Calendar of the Proceedings of the Committee for the Advance of Money (164256). Ed. Everett Green, M. A. 3 parts. 1888.
Clarendon, Edward Hyde, Earl of. Calendar of the Clarendon State Papers preserved in the Bodleian Library. Vol. I, to January, 1649. Edd. Ogle, O. and Bliss, W. H. Oxford, 1872. Vol. II, from the death of Charles I to the end of 1654. Ed. Macray, W. D. Oxford, 1869. (Contains, inter alia, the newsletters sent to Sir Edward Nicholas at the Hague.) Vol. III, 16557. Ed. Macray, W. D. Oxford, 1876.
This volume contains, pp. 79 ff., Letter from a true and lawful member of Parliament and one faithfully engaged with it from the beginninge of the warr to the end, to one of the Lords of his Highnesse Councell, upon occasyon of the late Declaration shewinge the reasons of the proceedings for securinge the peace of the Commonwealth, publ. on the 31st of October, 1655 (1656).
State Papers collected by Edward, Earl of Clarendon, commencing from the yeare 1621. Containing the Materials from which his History of the Great Rebellion was composed and the Authorities on which the truth of his Relation is founded. 3 vols. Oxford, 176786.
This is a selection only, omitting private and personal matters.
Cromwell, Oliver. Letters and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell. Ed. Carlyle, Thomas. 2 vols. 1845. New ed. by Lomas, S. C., with an introduction by Firth, C. H. 2 vols. 1904.
Letters and Papers relating to the First Dutch War, 16524. Ed. Gardiner, S. R. Vols. I and II. Ptd. for the Navy Records Society. 18991900. Contains Orders of the Council of State, news from ports etc.
Manchester and Cromwell. Quarrel, the, between the Earl of Manchester and Oliver Cromwell: an Episode of the English Civil War. Unpublished documents relating thereto, collected by the late John Bruce, with fragments of a historical preface. Annotated and completed by Masson, David. Camden Soc. Publ. N. S. XII. 1875.
A notable episode in the history of the struggle between presbyterianism and independency, and of the establishment of the New Model. Cromwells statement in the House of Commons is very businesslike.
Milton, John. Letters of State Written by Mr John Milton, To most of the Sovereign Princes and Republicks of Europe. From the year 1649. Till the Year 1659. 1694.
Nalson, John. An Impartial Collection of the Great Affairs of State. From the beginning of the Scotch Rebellion In the Year MDCXXXIX. To the Murther of King Charles I. Wherein The first Occasions, and the whole Series of the late Troubles in England, Scotland and Ireland, Are faithfully Represented. 2 vols. 1682.
John Nalson (1638?86), whose royalist pamphlets belong to the latter part of the reign of Charles II, only carried his Impartial Collection to January 1642. It is mentioned here as avowedly designed to be an antidote to Rushworth; but the additional documents which Nalson was allowed to copy at the State Paper Office, did not enable him to supersede his predecessor.
Nicholas, Sir Edward. The Nicholas Papers. Correspondence of Sir Edward Nicholas, Secretary of State. Ed. Warner, G. F. 3 vols. Camden Soc. Publ. N. S. XL, L, LVII. 188697.
Rushworth, John. Historical Collections of Private Passages of State. Weighty Matters in Law. Remarkable Proceedings in Five Parliaments. Beginning The Sixteenth Year of King James, Anno 1618
. 8 vols. 165980. (Vol. VIII contains The Tryall of Thomas Earl of Strafford, 1641.) Another edition, Historical Collections of Private Passages of State, Weighty Matters in Law, Remarkable Proceedings in Five Parliaments. Part I, 161829. Part II, 162940. Part III, 16404. Part IV, 16459. 7 vols. 16591701. Another edition. 6 vols. 17038.
Strafford, Thomas Wentworth, Earl of. The Earl of Straffords Letters and Despatches, with an Essay towards his life by Sir G. Radcliffe. Ed. Knowler, W. 2 vols. 1739. These extend over the years 161140.
Thurloe, J. A Collection of the State Papers of John Thurloe, Esq.; Secretary, First, to the Council of State, And afterwards to The Two Protectors, Oliver and Richard Cromwell. To which is prefixed, The Life of Mr Thurloe. By Thomas Birch. 7 vols. 1742.
(Balcanqual, or Balcanquhall, Dr.) A large Declaration concerning the late Tumults in Scotland from their first Originalls: together with a particular Deduction of the seditious Practices of the prime Leaders of the Covenanters: Collected òut of their owne foule Acts and Writings: By which it doth plainly appeare, that Religion was onely pretended by those Leaders, but nothing lesse intended by them. By the King. 1639.
A Historical Deduction, ordered by the king and printed by his majestys printer for Scotland, against the Covenant of 1638, which is here rehearsed at length and unequivocally denounced.
Clarke Papers, the. Ed. Firth, C. H. 3 vols.
This selection is an important source for the history of the English government of Scotland under the commonwealth and the protectorate.
Hamilton Papers, the: being Selections from Original Letters in the possession of the Duke of Hamilton and Brandon (161651), relating to the years 163840. Ed. Gardiner, S. R. Camden Soc. Publ. N. S. XXVII. 1880.
Though the letters of Charles I, as already ptd. by Burnet in his Memoirs of the Dukes of Hamilton, are omitted, Hamiltons own correspondence is given completely, together with Sir Robert Murrays letters from Newcastle during the kings confinement and the correspondence of Lauderdale.
James VI (I). Correspondence of King James VI of Scotland with Sir Robert Cecil and others in England, during the reign of Queen Elizabeth; with an Appendix containing papers illustrative of transactions between King James and Robert Earl of Essex. (Principally from the papers of the marquis of Salisbury at Hatfield.) Ed. Bruce, J. Camden Soc. Publ. LXXVII. 1861.
Parts I, II and III contain the kings correspondence with Cecil, lord Henry Howard and the earl of Northumberland respectively. The introduction is admirable.
Melros State Papers. State Papers and Miscellaneous Correspondence of Thomas, Earl of Melros (15631637). 2 vols. Edd. Maidment, J. and Hope, J. Abbotsford Club Publ. Edinburgh, 1837.
These discuss, in the broadest Scots, Scottish affairs after the accession of James to the English throne, including his visit to Halirud House in 1617.
Calendar of State Papers relating to Ireland of the Reign of James I, preserved in the Public Record Office and elsewhere. Edd. Russell, C. W. and Prendergast, J. P. 5 vols. 187280.
Calendar of the Carew Papers preserved in the Lambeth Library. Edd. Brewer, J. S. and Bullen, W. 6 vols. 186773. (Vols. IIIVI deal with the period from 15891624.)
The basis of the detailed account of the Irish rebellion, 1599 to 1602, published after Carews death in Pacata Hibernia. See Sec. VI, C.
Cromwell, Henry (162874). Correspondence, Lansdowne MSS., British Museum.
(These still await publication.)
Ormonde, Duke of. Carte, T. A Collection of Original Letters and Papers, concerning the Affairs of England, from the year 1641 to 1660. Found among the Duke of Ormondes Papers. 2 vols. 1739.
The MSS. of the Marquis of Ormonde, K.P., preserved at the Castle, Kilkenny. Ed. Gilbert, Sir John T., Hist. MSS. Comm., 14th Report, Appendix, part VII. 2 vols. 18959.
Calendar of MSS. of the Marquess of Ormonde, K.P., preserved at Kilkenny Castle. Hist. MSS. Comm., N.S. 5 vols. 19028 (vols. I and II).
These transcripts from the papers of the first duke of Ormonde (161088) at Kilkenny, together with the papers in Cartes collection at the Bodleian, are described by Falkiner, C. Litton, An Illustrious Cavalier, in Essays relating to Ireland (1909) as amounting to something like a continuous series of papers concerning Irish public affairs from the outbreak of the Irish rebellion of 1641 to the close of the reign of Charles I. Few statesmen, he says, have taken more pains to preserve their correspondence. Among Ormondes correspondents during the exile of Charles II and his court were Hyde (Clarendon), Nicholas, lord Byron and cardinal de Retz.
Sydney Letters. Letters and Memorials of State, In the Reigns of Queen Mary, Queen Elizabeth, King James, King Charles the First, Part of the Reign of King Charles the Second, and Olivers Usurpation. Written and Collected by Sir Henry Sydney, Sir Philip Sydney, his brother Sir Robert Sydney, second Earl of Leicester and Philip Lord Viscount Lisle. Ed. Collins, Arthur. 2 vols. 1746.
The main interest is Elizabethan and Irish; the reign of James I is not reached till the middle of vol. II.
Public documents concerning the history of Ireland are also to be found in Hibernica, and in Bellingss History of the Irish Confederation, etc. (see Sec. VI, C).
II. AMBASSADORIAL DESPATCHES AND NEWSLETTERS
Birch, Thomas. An Historical View of the Negotiations between the Courts of England, France and Brussels, from the year 1592 to 1617. Extracted chiefly from the MS. State Papers of Sir Thomas Edmondes, Knt., Embassador in France, and at Brussels, and Treasurer of the Household to the Kings James I and Charles I and of Anthony Bacon, Esq., Brother to the Lord Chancellor Bacon. To which is added Carews Relation (see below). 1749.
Bulstrode, Sir Richard (16101711). Original Letters Written to the Earl of Arlington by Sir Richard Bulstrode, Envoy at the Court of Brussels from King Charles II, & c. With an Account of the Authors Life and Family. Ed. Bysshe, E. 1712.
Carew, Sir George (afterwards Earl of Totnes). A relation of the State of France, with the Characters of Henry IV and the Principal Persons of that Court. Drawn up by Sir George Carew, upon his Return from his Embassy there in 1609, and addressed to King James I. Ptd. in Birch, T., (see above).
(15651629). Letters from George Lord Carew to Sir Thomas Roe, Ambassador to the Court of the Great Mogul, 16151617. Ed. Maclean, J. Camden Soc. Publ., LXXVI. 1860.
Carleton, Sir Dudley, Viscount Dorchester. State Letters, during his Embassy at the Hague, A.D. 1627. Now first edited by T[homas] P[hillips]. 1841.
Carleton was Wottons successor at Venice. His mission to the Hague in 1627 was to invest the prince of Orange with the garter, but his secret instructions were concerned with the Anglo-French quarrel.
The Speech of Sir Dudley Carlton Lord Embassadour for the King in the Estates Generall of the united Provinces touching Arminius. Exhibited the 6. of October 1617. 1618.
Advises that the truth as to Arminianism, if not determinable otherwise, should be settled by votes at a synod. This was done at Dort.
Chamberlain, John. Letters written by John Chamberlain during the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Ed. from the originals by Williams, Sarah. Camden Soc. Publ. LXXIX. 1861.
Chamberlain was a Cambridge man, usually resident in London.
Digges, Sir Dudley. The Compleat Ambassador: or two Treaties of the Intended Marriage of Qu: Elizabeth of Glorious Memory; Comprised in Letters of Negotiation of Sir Francis Walsingham, her Resident in France. Together with the Answers of the Lord Burgleigh, the Earl of Leicester, Sir Tho: Smith and others. Wherein, as in a clear Mirror, may be seen the Faces of the two Courts of England and France, as they then stood; with many remarkable passages of State, not at all mentioned in any History. 1655.
Howell, James. See Sec. III.
Overbury, Sir Thomas (15811613). His Observations, in his Travels upon the State of the Seventeen Provinces, 1609; ptd. 1626; upon the State of the Archdukes [sic] Country, 1609; on the State of France, 1609.
This and similar summaries can hardly be called state papers, and are neither despatches nor newsletters proper; but they partake of the nature of all these kinds, and resemble some of the most sustained efforts of modern journalism. Overburys observations on the State of France are remarkable: he speaks of France as the greatest united force of Christendom, mentioning, among her weak points, the want of a sufficient infantry, which he attributes to the enfeeblement of the peasant class.
Roe, Sir Thomas (1581?1644). Letters and negotiations concerning the embassy of Sir Thomas Roe to Constantinople. Ed. Carte, T. Vol. I. 1740.
No second volume appeared. The queen of Bohemias faithful fatt Thom went on a mission to the Great Mogul, 16157; see Carew, Sir George. His Constantinople embassy lasted from 1621 to 1628.
Thirty Years War. Letters and other Documents illustrating the relations between England and Germany at the commencement of the Thirty Years War. (I) From the Outbreak of the Revolution in Bohemia to the Election of the Emperor Ferdinand II. (2) From the election of the Emp. Ferdinand II to the close of the Conferences at Mühlhausen. Ed. Gardiner, S. R. Camden Soc. Publ. XC and XCVIII. 1875 and 1878.
The former series chiefly treats of Doncasters hopeless mission for the settlement of the Bohemian troubles in 1619; the latter of James Is vacillations as to his son-in-laws acceptance of the Bohemian crown.
Winwood, Sir Ralph (1563?1617). Memorials of Affairs of State in the Reigns of Q. Elizabeth and K. James I. Collected (chiefly) from the Original Papers Of the Right Honourable Sir Ralph Winwood, Kt. Sometime one of the Principal Secretaries of State. Ed. Sawyer, E. 3 vols. 1725.
The whole Winwood Collection is calendared in the Hist. MSS. Comm. on the MSS. of the Duke of Buccleuch, vol. I, 1899. Sir Ralph Winwood had been secretary of embassy and acting resident at Paris. The Memorials include the negotiations of other agents abroad.
Smith, L. P. The Life and Letters of Sir Henry Wotton. 2 vols. Oxford, 1907.
Wotton, Sir Henry. Letters and Dispatches from Sir Henry Wotton to James the First and his Ministers in the years 161720. Roxburghe Club. Publ. 1850.
See, also, Vol. IV, bibliography to chap. IX, p. 552.
Later newsletters are those written by Sir William Dugdale and Stephen Charlton to Sir Richard Levison and by James Waynright to Richard Bradshaw; while in the Clarke Papers (see Sec. I, B) are to be found reports sent to the headquarters of the army in Scotland from its agents in England during the latter part of Olivers protectorate. See Firth, C. H., Preface to vol. I of The Last Years of the Protectorate, 16568 (1909).
III. PRIVATE AND DOMESTIC LETTERS
Bacon, Francis (Viscount St. Alban). Letters and Life of Francis Bacon, including all his Occasional Works, namely, Letters, Speeches, Tracts, State Papers, Memorials, Devices, etc. Ed. Spedding, James. 7 vols. 18614. (Vols. VIIIXIV of The Works of Francis Bacon, 185774.) (Besides the particular letters by Bacon mentioned in the text may be noted the Letter of Advice to Buckingham on becoming Favourite (1616) in vol. VI, and many others to the same address and to that of the king (including Bacons letter on his fall) in vols. VI and VII.)
Bromley, Sir George. A Collection of Original Royal Letters written by King Charles the First and Second, King James the Second, and the King of Bohemia; together with Original Letters written by Prince Rupert, Charles Louis Count Palatine, the Duchess of Hanover, and several other distinguished Persons; from 1619 to 1665. 1787.
Sir George Bromley was the descendant of a sometime envoy to the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg, and of a natural daughter of prince Rupert.
Cecil, Sir Robert (1563?1612). Letters from Sir Robert Cecil to Sir George Carew. Ed. Maclean, J. Camden Soc. Publ. LXXXVIII. 1864.
Written during the tenure of the presidency of Munster by Carew.
Charles I. Letters of King Charles the First to Queen Henrietta Maria. Ed. Bruce, J. Camden Soc. Publ. 1861.
This interesting correspondence belongs to the year 1646, when the king, left to himself, made to the parliament highly important concessions, which the queen passionately denounced.
The Private Correspondence between King Charles I and his Secretary of State, Sir Edward Nicholas, whilst His Majesty was in Scotland, 1641, and at other times during the Civil War; also between Sir Edward Hyde, afterwards Earl of Clarendon, and Sir Richard Browne, ambassador to the Court of France, in the time of Charles II and the Usurpation. In vol. IV of Diary of John Evelyn, etc. Edd. Bray, W. and Wheatley, H. B. 1879.
Clarendon, Edward Hyde, Earl of. Private Correspondence with Sir Richard Browne, Ambassador to the Court of France. In vol. IV of Diary of John Evelyn, etc.
Ellis, Sir H. Original Letters illustrative of English history. Ser. I, 3 vols. Ser. II, 4 vols. Ser. III, 4 vols. 2nd ed. 182546.
Original Letters of eminent literary men of the 16th, 17th, and 18th centuries. Camden Soc. Publ. 1843.
Fairfax Correspondence, the. Memoirs of the Reign of Charles the First. Ed. Johnson, J. G. W. 2 vols. 1848. (Narrative interspersed with Letters, to 1642.) Continued in Memorials of the Civil War: comprising the Correspondence of the Fairfax Family. Ed. Bell, R. 2 vols. 1849. (To 1660, with some letters belonging to later years).
Forde, Thomas. Faenestra in Pectore. Or, Familiar Letters. 1660.
Halliwell[-Phillipps], J. O. Letters of the Kings of England, now first collected from the Originals in Royal Archives etc. Ed. Halliwell, J. O. 2 vols. 1846. (Vol. II contains many letters from James I and Charles I to Buckingham, queen Henrietta Maria and others.)
Hatton Correspondence. Correspondence of the Family of Hatton, being chiefly letters addressed to Christopher, first Viscount Hatton, A.D. 16011704. Ed. Thompson, E. M. 2 vols. Camden Soc. Publ. N. S. XXIIXXIII. 1878. [The whole Finch-Hatton Correspondence is in MS. in the British Museum.]
Henrietta Maria, Queen. Letters of. Ed. Everett Green, M. A. 1857.
Howell, James. Epistolae Ho-Elianae. Familiar Letters Domestic and Forren; Divided into Six Sections, Partly Historicall, Politicall, Philosophicall, Upon Emergent Occasions: By J. H. Esq;: One of the Clerks of His Majesties most Honourable Privy Councell. 1645. Ed. Jacobs, J. 2 vols. 1890.
Letter to the Earle of Pembrooke concerning the Times, and the sad condition both of Prince and People. 1647.
For other publications by Howell see Sec. V, A and Sec. VII, B, 2.
Loveday, Robert (fl. 1655). Letters Domestick and Forrein, occasionally distributed in Subjects Philosophicall Historicall Morall. 1659.
The author, who translated La Calprenèdes Cléopâtre, was an agreeable writer, versed in French and Italian. He very seldom refers to the civil war, though he lived in the midst of it at Nottingham.
Scoones, W. B. Four Centuries of English Letters, sec. II (16001700). 1880.
Strafford, Thomas Wentworth, Earl of. Private Letters from the Earl of Strafford to his third Wife. Ed. Milnes, R. M. (Lord Houghton) in Philobiblon Societys Miscellanies, vol. I. 1854.
Verney Letters. Letters and Papers of the Verney Family down to the end of the year 1639. Printed from the original MSS. Ed. Bruce, J. Camden Soc. Publ. LIII. 1853.
Memoirs of the Verney Family. 164296. Edd. Verney, Lady F. P. and Verney, Lady M. M. 4 vols. 18929.
Wills. A Selection of the Wills of Eminent Persons, preserved in the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, 14951695. Edd. Nichols, J. G. and Bruce, J. Camden Soc. Publ. 1863. (Includes the wills of Elizabeth of Bohemia, speaker Lenthall, John Hampden, and others.)
IV. DEBATES AND SPEECHES
No reference is here made to sermons and other religious discourses, which were specially numerous in the latter part of the period. The political speeches increase in both quality and importance as the authority of parliament gradually becomes paramount. During the earlier years of the seventeenth century, the Journal Book of the House of Commons (which, in the Elizabethan age, had, for the most part, been in better order than that of the Lords) continued to preserve reports of speeches delivered there, though in a very condensed form; but in the Lords no speeches (except the kings) were entered in the Journals, though a rough record was kept for reference by the peers themselves. In the time of the Long parliament, feeling was still strong in both Houses against allowing any full record of speeches. Rushworth was prevented from expanding entries in the Journals, and members of the House of Commons (as in the cases of Sir Edward Deering and Lord Digby) were actually expelled for taking notes.
The following is a list, in chronological order, of reports of parliamentary proceedings preserved to us. Of the Parliamentary History, vol. I (1806) covers the ground from 1066 to 1624; vol. II deals with 1625, and the subsequent volumes advance even less expeditiously. Rushworths Historical Collections (165980) see Sec. I, Awhich begin with the year 1618, contain an account of parliamentary proceedings during the sessions covered.
DEwes, Sir Simonds. A Compleat Journal of the Votes, Speeches and Debates, both of the House of Lords and House of Commons, throughout the whole Reign of Elizabeth of Glorious Memory. 2nd ed. 1693.
This is taken from the Journal Books of both Houses and other sources, and resembles a modern parliamentary summary.
Townshend, Hayward (fl. 1601). Historical Collections; or, An exact Account of the Proceedings of the Four last Parliaments of Q. Elizabeth of Famous Memory. Wherein is contained The Compleat Journals Both of the Lords and Commons, Taken from the Original Records of Their Houses, As also The more particular Behaviours of the Worthy Members during all the last notable Sessions. 1680.
Includes speeches by Robert Cecil, Bacon and Ralegh, who, on one occasion, is described as blushing at the mention of Monopolies of Cards.
Parliamentary Debates in 1610. Ed. from the notes of a member of the house of Commons by Gardiner, S. R. Camden Soc. Publ. 1862.
Proceedings and Debates in the House of Commons in 1620 and 1621, collected by a Member of that House [Sir E. Nicholas]. 2 vols. Oxford, 1766.
Notes of the Debates in the House of Lords, officially taken by Henry Elsing, Clerk of the Parliaments A.D. 1621. Ed. Gardiner, S. R. Camden Soc. Publ. 1870.
Notes of the Debates in the House of Lords, officially taken by Henry Elsing, Clerk of the Parliaments A.D. 1624 and 1626. Ed. Gardiner, S. R. Camden Soc. Publ. N. S. XXIV. Westminster, 1879.
Contains notes of the last parliament of James and the first of Charlesincluding the impeachments of Middlesex, Buckingham and Bacon, and the charges against Bristol. The Petition of Right debates, 1628, remain unprinted.
Debates in the House of Commons 1625. Ed. Gardiner, S. R. Camden Soc. Publ. 1873.
In these debates, which turn on the ambitious designs of Buckingham, Eliot already comes to the front.
Verney, Sir Ralph. Notes of Proceedings in the Long Parliament, temp. Charles I. Printed from original pencil memoranda taken in the House by Sir Ralph Verney, Knight. Ed. Bruce, J. Camden Soc. Publ. XXXI. 1845. (Sir Ralph Verney was member for Aylesbury.)
Burton, Thomas. Diary. Vols. IIV. Ed. by Rutt, T. 1828.
Thomas Burton sat in the House of Commons for Westmorland, 16569; his note-books are of value for the end of the protectorate, though Carlyle complains of his dim inanity.
The practice of entering in the Journals of the House of Lords protests, accompanied by a statement of reasons, which dates from the time of the Long parliament (1641), is fully elucidated, and the protests are printed from the Journal of the Lords, in
Rogers, James E. Thorold. A Complete Collection of the Protests of the Lords. With Historical Introductions. 3 vols. Oxford, 1875.
Of particular speeches dating from this period it would answer no purpose to attempt anything like a complete list. James I and Charles I, and, again, Charles II (with his back to the fire) addressed the House of Lords with a freedom and frequency unknown to later times; but it was not till after the restoration that it seems to have become customary to publish at the opening, prorogation or dissolution of parliament, or on other important occasions, speeches delivered from the throne which, although still, in a measure, informal, were intended to convey carefully prepared announcements of policy. Such speeches, delivered by Charles II on 13 September 1660, 29 December 1660, and 8 May 1661, were published with companion speeches by lord chancellor Clarendon. As to the speeches of Oliver Cromwell, cf. Sec. I, A. Among the speeches by eminent ministers and members of parliament, those of Bacon claim precedence. (See Letters and Life etc., by Spedding, J., 7 vols., 18614; of which vols. III and IV contain many of Bacons parliamentary speeches; vol. V his charge as attorney general against Somerset in the Overbury case; and vol. VI his speech on assuming office as lord chancellor.) From the great days of the Long parliament are preserved deliverances of critical moment, such as Falklands great speech on episcopacy (1641), showing the parting of the waters, and Pyms against Laud (of the same year), which, with several speeches against Strafford, marks the first great sweep of the revolutionary movement. Any list of extant speeches would have to include several by Hyde (Clarendon), in both phases of his political life, and examples of the oratory of Prynne (with whom everything was interminable) and of Prynnes adversaries, sectaries whose ideas of liberty were very divergent from his own. Sir Dudley Digges put on record
A Conference desired by the Lords and had by a Committee of both Houses, concerning the Rights and Privileges of the Subjects. Discoursed by Sir Dudley Digges, Sir Edward Littleton, Knight, now Lord Keeper, Master Seldon, Sir Edward Cooke. With the Objections by Sir Robert Heath, Knight, then Attorney Generall, and the Answer. 3°Apr. 3 Car. 1628. 1642.
The question at issue is that of illegal imprisonment, redress by demand of Habeas Corpus failing.
Sir Simonds dEwes preserved, together with The Greeke Postscripts of the Epistles to Timothy and Titus cleared in Parliament. And an occasionall Speech touching the Bill of Acapitation, or Poll-Money, 1641, rptd. in Harleian Miscellany, ed. Park, T., vol. IX, 1812:
Two speeches: the first touching the antiquity of Cambridge, the other concerning the Priviledge of Parliament, in Causes Civill and Criminall. 1642.
Finally, though the genuineness of dying speeches is at all times open to doubt, the last words of Charles I in the Life and Death of Charles the First, with his Tryal, Sentences and Dying Words seem to have been reported very soon after the catastrophe. Still, like these, archbishop Lauds Speech or Funerall Sermon preacht by himself on the Scaffold on Tower-Hill (10 January 1644) may be less trustworthy than are some of the speeches delivered by him in the Star chamber against Bastwick, Burton and Prynne, and ptd. in The Second Volume of the Remains of Archbishop Laud (Written by Himself). Collected by Henry Wharton and published by Edmund Wharton, 1700, as a supplement to the Diary (1694). The speech which Sir Henry Vane was prevented from delivering, but which was included in The Tryal of Sir Henry Vane, Kt at the Kings Bench, Westminster June 2d and 6h 1662 (1662) has every internal sign of genuineness. But it falls in date, though not in spirit, outside the period covered by these chapters.
V. HISTORIES AND BIOGRAPHIES
A. English and General
For a bibliography of the Tudor chroniclers see ante, Vol. III, pp. 596601. In John Speed, who had the assistance of the eminent antiquaries Sir Henry Cotton (especially in his account of the reign of Henry VIII), Spelman and others, some critics have recognised the earliest of English historians as well as one of the trustiest of annalists. A great impulse was, no doubt, given to the study of English history by the author of Britannia (1586), William Camden, whose Annals of the Reign of Elizabeth Selden couples with Bacons Henry VIII as distinguished from all other attempts at writing contemporary English history. For a list of the works comprised in vols. I and II of bishop White Kennetts History of England to the death of William III, 1706, see Gardiner, S. R. and Mullinger, J. B., Introduction to English History (3rd ed.), p. 217 note 5; vol. III was Kennetts own composition.
Bacon, Francis (Viscount St Alban). The Historie of the Reigne of King Henry the Seventh. 1622. Rptd. in Bacons Literary and Professional Works, edd. Spedding, J. and Ellis, R. L., vol. I, 1858.
Of the History of the reign of Henry VIII, which Bacon was recommended to write by Charles prince of Wales, only a page or two were written. See L. and P. Works, u.s. pp. 2678. A rather larger fragment, not devoid of grandeur, remains of The Beginning of the History of Great Britain, written a little before 1610; see ibid. pp. 271 ff. Of much historical interest are:
Advertisement touching on Holy Warre, written in 1622, ptd. by Rawley, W., in Certain Miscellany Works of (Bacon), 1629, and rptd. in L. and P. Works, u.s. vol. II, pp. 8 ff.; and the fragment Of the True Greatness of the Kingdom of Britain, ptd. 1634, rptd. L. and P. Works, vol. II, pp. 37 ff. The former, in dialogue form, advocates a war against the Turks; the latter advocates the policy of employing in war energies otherwise likely to spend themselves in domestic quarrels.
Bedell, William, Bishop of Kilmore (15711642). A True Relation, of the Life and Death of William Bedell, Lord Bishop of Kilmore in Ireland. Ed. Jones, T. Wharton. Camden Soc. Publ. 1872. (Previously publ. without notes by Mayor, J. E. B., 1871.)
Bedell, William. Speculum Episcoporum; or The Apostolique Bishop, being a brieffe Account of the Lyfe and Death of that Reverend Father in God, D. William Bedell etc. (By his son-in-law, Alexander Clogy.) Edd. Wilkins, W. W., 1862, and, with A True Relation, Letters, etc. under the title Two Biographies of William Bedell, Shuckburgh, E. S., Cambridge, 1902.
Bedell was, as Sir Henry Wottons chaplain at Venice, associated with his protestant schemes. He died in 1642, as a victim of the Irish rebellion. Later lives of him were published by Burnet (1685) and by Mason, H. J. Monck (1843).
Bolton, Edmund (1575?1633?). Hypercritica; or A Rule of Judgment for writing, or reading our Historys. (Occasioned by a Censorian Epistle, prefixed to Sir Henry Saviles Edition of some of our oldest Historians in Latin (1618).) First publ. by Hall, A., in Nicolai Triveti Annalium Continuatio, 1722. Rptd. by Haslewood, J., in Ancient Critical Essays upon English Poets and Poësy, vol. II, 1815.
(Philanactophil). Nero Cæsar, or Monarchie Depraved. 1624. The 2nd ed. (1627) contains as an Appendix An Historical Parallel, or, A demonstration of the notable oddes, for the more use of life, betweene reading large Histories, and briefe ones, how excellent soever, as those of Lucius Florus.
This work recapitulates the affairs of Britain from the time of Julius Caesar to that of Nero, taking occasion to show that Stonehenge (more commonly called Stonage) is a monument to Boadicea.
Buc, or Buck, [Sir] George (d. 1623). The History of the Life and Reigne of Richard The Third. Composed in five Bookes. 1646.
Rptd. in Kennett, u.s. vol. I, 1705. The George Buck Esquire mentioned on the title-page as the author of this work, which anticipates in lucid style Horace Walpoles defence of Richard, is thought by Ritson to be identical with Sir George Buc or Buck, author of The Third Universitie of England. Or A Treatise of the Foundations of all the Colledges, Auncient Schooles of Priviledge, and of Houses of Learning and Liberall Arts, within and about the most famous Cittie of London. 1615 appended to Stows Annales, ed. Howe, E., 1615.
Camden, Willaim. See ante, Vol. III, pp. 5967.
Charles I. Memoirs of the Two last Years of the Reign of that unparallelld Prince, of ever Blessed Memory, King Charles I. By Sir Thomas Herbert, Major Huntington, Col. Edw. Cohe, and Mr Hen. Firebrace. With the Character of that Blessed Martyr, by The Reverend Mr John Diodati, Mr Alexander Henderson, and the Author of the Princely Pelican. To which is added, The Death-Bed Repentance of Mr Lenthal, Speaker of the Long-Parliament; Extracted out of a Letter written from Oxford, Sept. 1662. 1702. Re-ed. by N[icol], G., 1813.
The Reign of Charles I. 1656. (Annalistic.)
Clarendon, Edward Hyde, Earl of. The History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars in England, together with an Historical View of the Affairs of Ireland. Now for the first time carefully printed from the original MS. preserved in the Bodleian Library. To which are subjoined the Notes of Bishop Warburton. 7 vols. Oxford, 1849.
-The Miscellaneous Works of
being a Collection of Several Valuable Tracts, Published from His Lordships Original MSS. 2nd ed. 1751. Contains:
Contemplations and Reflections upon the Psalms of David. Concluded.
Montpelier, 1670. A Discussion, by Way of Vindication of my self from the Charge of High-Treason, with which I was charged by the House of Commons, November, 1667. Montpelier, 1668. (Embodied in Life.)
Essays Divine and Moral.
Of Human Nature; Of Pride [on funerals]; Of Anger; Of Patience in Adversity; Of Friendship [lofty, but temperate]; Of Counsel and Conversation; Of Promises [a notable essay]; Of Liberty [attack, of an orthodox kind, on Hobbes]; Of Industry; Of Sickness [fine]; Of Repentance; Of Conscience [also polemical]; Of an Active and Contemplative Life, and when and Why the One ought to be preferred before the other; Of War; Of Peace [both these are humane in spirit]; Of Sacrilege [caustic on the misuse of fast days; reasonable as to secularisation]; Of the Reverence due to Antiquity [practical and cheerful]; Against the multiplying Controversies, by insisting upon Particulars that are not necessary to the Point in Debate [against re-union conferences as useless]; A Dialogue between A. an old Courtier, B. an old Lawyer, C. an old Soldier, D. an old Country Gentleman, and E. an old Alderman, of the Want of Respect due to Age; A Dialogue between the same Persons and a Bishop, concerning Education (dated Montpelier, 1668).
See also: Boyle, G. D., Characters and Episodes of the Great Rebellion. Selected from the History and Autobiography of Edward Earl of Clarendon, Oxford, 1889; Lewis, Lady Theresa, Lives of the Friends and Contemporaries of Lord Chancellor Clarendon: illustrations of Portraits in his Gallery, 3 vols. 1852.
Among critical estimates of Clarendon as a historian may be mentioned:
Firth, C. H. Edward Earl of Clarendon, as Statesman, Historian and Chancellor of the University, delivered as a lecture at Oxford on the occasion of the Tercentenary of Clarendons birth (18 February, 1909). Oxford, 1909.
Ranke, L. von. History of England in the Seventeenth Century. Eng. trans. vol. VI, Criticism of the Historians, pp. 129: Clarendon. Oxford, 1875.
Stephen, Sir J. F. Horae Sabbaticae. 2 vols. 1892.
Compare, also: Atterbury, Francis, Bp. of Rochester, The late B. of R.s Vindication of Bp. Smallridge, Dr. Aldrich and Himself, from the Reflections of Oldmixon relating to the Publication of Lord Clarendons History, 1731 (O., in the preface to his History of England, had asserted that Clarendons MS. was altered in some important places by Smith, Edward, of Christ Church); and Buff, A., Die Politik Karls I in den ersten Wochen nach seiner Flucht von London und Lord Clarendons Darstellung dieser Zeit, Giessen, 1868 (intended to show Clarendons untrustworthiness).
See, also, under Whitelocke, Bulstrode, below.
As to Clarendons speeches, see text; as to the Clarendon State Papers, see Sec. I, A.
Daniel, Samuel (15621619). The Collection of the History of England. To Stephen, 1612, reissued 1613; to Edward III, 1617; With a Continuation of the History, unto the reign of Henry the Seventh. By John Trussell. 1685.
Trussell (d. 1642) was author of Touchstone of Tradition, an account of Winchester antiquities, written c. 1642 and preserved among Lord Mostyns MSS. See Hist. MSS. Comm., 4th Report, 1874, p. 355.
Forde, Thomas. Virtus Rediviva: or, a Panegyrick On the late K. Charls the I. 1660.
Points of comparison are found with all the best people in the worlds history, and of contrast with some of the bad.
Gerard, John (15641637). During the Persecution. Autobiography of Father John Gerard of the Society of Jesus. Translated from the Narratio P. Johannis Gerardi de rebus a se in Anglia gestis; by Kingdon, G. R., S.J. Quarterly Series, vol. LVI. 1886.
The Condition of Catholics under James I. Father Gerards Narrative of the Gunpowder Plot. Ed. with his life, by Morris, J. 1871.
Godwin, Francis (Bishop of Hereford) (15621633). Annals of the Reign of Queen Mary. Trans. by [Hughes], J., from Bishop Godwins Rerum Anglicarum Hen. VIII, Edw. VI et Maria regn. 1616. Ptd. in Kennett, u.s. vol. II.
Habington, Thomas (15601647). Historie of Edward IV of England. Completed by his son William [author of Castara]. 1640. Rptd. in Kennett, u. s. vol. 1.
Hayward, Sir John. See bibliography to Vol. III, p. 598.
Herbert of Cherbury, Edward, Lord. The Life of, written by himself. First ptd. 1764. New ed. 1827. Ed. Lee, S. 1886 and .
Expeditio in Ream insulam, Authore Edwardo Domino Herbert, Barone de Cherbury in Anglia, et Castri Insulæ de Kerry in Hibernia, et Pare utriusque Regni MDCXXX. Ed. Baldwin, J. 1656. Original English version, first ptd. by the Earl of Powis for the Philobiblon Soc. 1860.
The Life and Reign of King Henry the Eighth. Together with which is briefly represented A General History of the Times. 1649. Rptd. in Kennett, u.s. vol. II, 1706.
On the Royal Supremacy in the Church. (Written in 1635, and extant in two MS. copies, one in the Record Office, the other in Queens College, Oxford.)
Heylyn, Peter. Aerius Redivivus, or The History of Presbyterianism. 1670.
A Help to English History containing A Succession of all the Kings of England, the English Saxons and the Britans; the Kings and Princes of Wales, the Kings and Lords of Man, the Isle of Wight. As also Of all the Dukes, Marquesses, Earls, and Bishops thereof, With The Description of the places from whence they had their titles; continued with a supplement, and enlarged with the names and ranks of the Viscounts and Barons to the year 1652. 1652.
Cyprianus Anglicanus, or The History of the Life and Death of Archbishop Laud. 1668.
Ecclesia Restaurata; Or, the History of the Reformation of the Church of England: Containing The Beginning, Progress, and Successes of it; the Counsels, by which it was conducted; the Rules of Piety, and Prudence, upon which it was Founded, the several Steps, by which it was promoted, or retarded, in the Change of Times: from The first Preparations to it by King Henry the Eight, untill the Legal Settling and Establishment of it under Queen Elizabeth: 1661. Ed. Robertson, J. C. Ecclesiastical History Soc. 1849.
Ecclesia Vindicata, or the Church of England justified: 1, in the manner of her reformation; 2, in officiating by a publick liturgie; 3, in prescribing a set form of prayer; 4, in her right and patrimony of titles; 5, in retaining the episcopal government, and therewith; 6, the canonical ordination of priests and deacons. 2 pts. 1657.
Observations on Mr Hamon LEstranges Life of Charles I. 1656.
In answer to attacks on the party. LEstranges rejoinder was rebutted by Heylyn in Extra Vapulans, in the same year.
Respondet Petrus. 1658.
Controversies with Nicholas Bernard and Sir William Sanderson.
(Theophilus Churchman). The Historie of Episcopacie. By Theophilus Churchman. 2 pts. 1642.
In 1681, a collection of historical and political tracts by Heylyn was published under the title K[char]. For a bibliography see Woods Athenae Oxonienses, 3rd ed., ed. Bliss, P., 181320, vol. III, pp. 557567. For an account of his life and writings see Creighton in D. of N. B. vol. XXVI.
Hobbes, Thomas. Behemoth: The History of the Causes of the Civil Wars of England, and of the Counsels and Artifices by which they were carried on, from the year 1640, to the year 1660. 1679. Rptd. in part II of Maseres, F., Select Tracts, 1815.
Howell, James. A Discours of the Empire and of The Election of A King of the Romans. The greatest Business of Christendom now in Agitation
1658. A historico-political disquisition; predicts the election of Leopold.
Lustra Ludovici, or The Life of the late Victorius King of France, Louis the XIII (and of his Cardinall de Richelieu). 1646.
Dedicated to Prince Charles at his court in Caesaria by vulgar contraction called Jersey. A lucid narrative, interpersed with characterisation and anecdote, and including a translation of a very clever skit on Richelieus Weltpolitik.
Howell also translated Alessandro Giraffis History of the late Revolution in Naples, 2 parts, 16645.
Knolles, Richard. See ante, Vol. IV, pp. 103, 524.
LEstrange, Hamon (160560). Annals of the Reign of King Charles I. (See Walker, Sir Edward.)
Lilly, William. Monarchy, or no Monarchy, in England. Part II of this is entitled: Several Observations on the Life and Death of Charles, late King of England. July, 1651. Part II rptd. in Maseres, F., Select Tracts, part 1, 1815. (See Walker, Sir Edward.)
May, Thomas. The History of the Parliament in England: which began November the Third, 1640, with a short and necessary view of some precedent yeares. Written by Thomas May, Secretary to the Parliament. Published by Authority. 1647. Ed. Maseres, F. 1812. New ed. Oxford, 1854.
A Breviary of the History of the Parliament of England clearly and on the whole impartially summarising the causes and progress of the first civil war, and briefly relating those of the second, is dated 1650, the year of Mays death, and supposed to be from his hand; but the earliest extant copy seems to be one ptd. in 1655.
Lucans Pharsalia. See ante, Vol. IV, p. 502.
The Reigne Of King Henry the Second, Written in Seaven Bookes. By his Majesties Command. 1633. Appended to the poem is The Description of King Henry the Second, with a short survey of the changes in his Reigne.
The Victorius Reigne of King Edward the Third. Written in Seven Bookes. By his Majestys Command. 1635.
Monson, Sir William (15691643). The Naval Tracts of his Six Books. Vols. I and II (Book 1). Ed. Oppenheim, M. 1902.
A yearly account of English and Spanish fleets during the Elizabethan wars.
Moryson, Fynes. Itinerary. Parts I to III. 1617. Part II and a small portion of part III deal with Morysons experiences as secretary to Mountjoy in Ireland, 16006. This was rptd. under the title of History of Ireland, from the years 1599 to 1603
to which is added a Description of Ireland, 2 vols., Dublin, 1735. Part IV ptd. under the title Shakespeares Europe: Unpublished Chapters of Fynes Morysons Itinerary. Being a Survey of the Condition of Europe at the end of the Sixteenth Century, ed., with introduction, Hughes, C., 1903. The whole work has been rptd. in 4 vols., Glasgow, 19078.
Osborne, Francis. Historical Memoires on the reigns of Queen Elizabeth, and King James. 2 parts. 1658. Part II rptd. by Scott, Sir Walter, in Secret History of the Court of James the First, vol. 1, Edinburgh, 1811.
Prynne, William. The first part of an Historical Collection of the Ancient Parliaments of England. From the year of our Lord 673, till the end of King Johns Reign, Anno 1216. 1649. (See, also, Sec. VII, B.)
Sanderson, Sir William (c. 15861676). A Complete History of the Life and Reign of Charles I; from his Cradle to his Grave. 1658.
Devotes much space to answering LEstranges History of Charles I and Heylyns Observations on it, thus causing in its turn Sandersons controversy with Heylyn. (See Firth, C. H., art. Sanderson in D. of N. B. vol. L.)
A Compleat History of the Lives and Reigns of Mary, Queen of Scotland and her son James. 1656.
This involved the author in a controversy with Carew Ralegh.
Aulicus Coquinariae, or A Vindication in Answer to a Pamphlet entitled The Court and Character of James I. 1650. (This has been sometimes attributed to Heylyn. See Welldon, Sir A., Sec. VI, A.)
Sikes, George. The Life and Death of Sir Henry Vane, Kt, or, A short Narrative of the main Passages of his Earthly Pilgrimage; together with a true Account of his purely Christian, Peaceable, Spiritual, Gospel-Principles, Doctrine, Life and Way of Worshipping God, for which he Suffered Contradiction and Reproach from all sorts of Sinners, and at last, a Violent Death, June 14. Anno, 1662. To which is added, His last Exhortation to his Children, the day before his Death. 1662.
Described by the author as treating mostly of the principles and courses of Sir H. Vanes hidden life.
Vane, Sir Henry. (161362.) The Tryal of Sir Henry Vane, Kt, at the Kings Bench, Westminster, June the 2d. and 6th. 1662. Together With what he intended to have Spoken the Day of his Sentence, (June II.) for Arrest of Judgment, (had he not been interrupted and over-ruled by the Court) and his Bill of Exceptions. With other Occasional Speeches, & c. Also his Speech and Prayer, & c, on the Scaffold. 1662.
Walker, Sir Edward. (161277.) Historical Discourses upon Several Occasions. 1705.
Includes papers on the Inconvenience of the frequent promotions to Titles of Honour Since the accession of James I, on W. Lillys Observations on the Life and Death of King Charles I (1651), and against Hamon LEstranges Annals of the Reign of King Charles I. With these Discourses were printed Perfect Copies of the Newport negotiations, and documents and proceedings connected with themvaluable material.
Wellwood, or Welwood, James (16521727). Memoirs of the Most Material Transactions in England for The Last Hundred Years, Preceding the Revolution in 1688. 1700.
Whitelocke, Bulstrode. Memorials of the English Affairs from the beginning of the Reign of Charles the First to the happy Restoration of King Charles the Second. 1682. Rptd., 4 vols., Oxford, 1853.
Oldmixon, J. Clarendon and Whitlocke compared. 1727.
Memorials of the English Affairs, From the Supposd Expedition of Brute to this Island, to the End of the Reign of King James the First. With some Account of Whitlockes Life and Writings by W. Penn. 1709.
Wilson, Arthur. The History of Great Britain, being the life and reign of King James the First. 1653. Rptd. in Kennett, u.s. vol. II, 1706. For this work, which is hostile to James, Wilsons patron Essex had lent him some of his fathers and Southamptons papers. The basis of the work is said to be Five Years of King James, 1643, by a puritan partisan of Essex (possibly Wilson himself). The History was answered by Sanderson (q.v.) and censured by Heylyn in Examen Historicum (1659) as utterly libellous. See Lee, S., art. Greville, Fulke (to whom the book was misattributed) in D. of N. B. vol. XXIII. As to Wilson, cf. Sec. VI, A.
Booke, the, of the Universall Kirk of Scotland: wherein the Headis and Conclusions devysit be the Ministers and commissionaris of the particular kirks thereof, are specially expressed and contained. Ed. Peterkin, A. Edinburgh, 1839.
Calderwood, David (15751650). The True History of the Church of Scotland, From the beginning of the Reformation, unto the end of the Reigne of King James VI. Written
at the Appointment of the General Assembly, 1678. Ed. from the original MS. preserved in the British Museum, by Thomson, T. 8 vols. Wodrow Soc. Publ. Edinburgh, 18429.
Spotswood, or Spottiswoode, John (Archbishop of St. Andrews) (15651637). The History of the Church of Scotland, Beginning the Year of our Lord 203, and continued to the end of the Reign of King James the VI of ever blessed Memory. Wherein are described, The Progress of Christianity; The Persecutions and Interruptions of it; The Foundation of Churches; The Erecting of Bishopricks; The Building and Endowing Monasteries, and other Religious Places; The Succession of Bishops in their Sees; The Reformation of Religion, and the frequent Disturbances of that Nation, by Wars, Conspiracies, Tumults, Schisms. 1655. 4th ed., with a large Appendix, 1677. Re-ed., with biographical sketch and notes, by Russell, M. Spottiswoode Soc. Publ. 3 vols. 1851.
Bellings, Richard (d. 1677). History of the Irish Confederation and the War in Ireland, 16413: containing a narrative of affairs in Ireland from 1641 to the conclusion of the Treaty for cessation of hostilities between England and the Irish, in 1643. With correspondence and documents of the Confederation and of the Administrators of the English Government in Ireland, contemporary personal statements, memoirs, etc. Now for the first time publ. from original MSS. Ed. Gilbert, J. T. 7 vols. Dublin, 188291.
Carew, George, Lord (afterwards Earl of Totnes). Pacata Hibernia, Ireland appeased and reduced: or, an Historie of the Late Warres of Ireland Especially within the Province of Mounster under the Government of Sir George Carew, Knight. 1633. Ed. OGrady, Standish. 2 vols. 1896.
Clarendon, Edward Hyde, Earl of. See Sec. V, A.
Davies, Sir John (15291626). A Discoverie of the True Causes why Ireland was never entirely Subdued, nor brought under Obedience to the Crowne of England, untill the Beginning of his Majestys happy Raigne. 1612, with a Dedication to the King. Rptd. 1613.
Regan, Morice. History of Ireland. Translated by Sir George Carew. 1770.
The MS. of the History of Morice Regan, who fl. 1170, was considered to be about a century later in date.
Spenser, Edmund. A Veue of the Present State of Ireland. 1596. Frequently rptd. from the text of Sir James Ware; in Globe ed. of the works of Spenser from Additional MS. 22022, the oldest of the three MSS. in the British Museum; in A. B. Grosarts Spenser, vol. IX (1824), the text followed is that of the Lambeth MS. J [char]: 10, 4to, vol. XCII, which the editor (see Memorial Introduction in vol. 1 of his edition, p. 216) gives reason for holding preferable in authenticity to the British Museum MSS. Cf. Falkiner, C. Litton, Essays Relating to Ireland: Biographical, Historical and Topographical, 1909.
Spenser, Edmund. Discourse of Civill Life, containing the Ethike Part of Morall Philosophie. 1606.
VI. DIARIES AND PERSONAL MEMOIRS
A. English and General
Ashburnham, John (160371). A Narrative of his Attendance on King Charles the First from Oxford to the Scotch Army, and from Hampton Court to the Isle of Wight: Never before printed. To which is prefixed a Vindication of his Character and Conduct, from the Misrepresentations of Lord Clarendon, by his lineal descendant and present representative. 2 vols. 1830.
Ashburnham (formerly of Peterhouse), groom of the chamber to Charles I, was accused of having received £40,000 from the parliament or the army, or both, but not allowed to attend the Newport negotiations as the kings commissioner. The Vindication occupies the whole of vol. 1.
Berkeley, Sir John (d. 1678). Memoirs: containing an Account of his Negotiation with Lieutenant-General Cromwell, Commissary-General Ireton, and other Officers of the Army for restoring King Charles the First to the Exercise of the Government of England. First publ. 1699, as an Appendix to Ashburnhams Narrative. 2nd ed. 1702. Rptd. in Harleian Miscellany, ed. Park, T., vol. IX, pp. 46688, 1812, and Maseres, F., Select Tracts relating to the Civil Wars, pt. 1, 1815.
Berkeley, as a favourite of queen Henrietta Maria, by her desire entered into a futile negotiation with Cromwell and other officers of the army as to the restoration of Charles Is royal authority. The transaction is, in some respects, differently told by Clarendon, who, of course, disliked Berkeley.
Carey, Robert, Earl of Monmouth (1560?1639). Memoirs, written by himself, and now first published. 1759. Ed. Powell, G. H. Kings Classics. 1905.
Coningsby, Sir Thomas (d. 1625). Journal of the Siege of Rouen in 1591. Ed. Nichols, J. G. Camden Soc. Publ. 1847.
DEwes, Sir Simonds. The Autobiography and Correspondence of Sir Simonds DEwes, Bart., during the Reigns of James I and Charles I. Ed. Halliwell [-Phillipps], J. O. 2 vols. 1845.
Digby, Sir Kenelm. Journal of a Voyage into the Mediterranean by Sir Kenelm Digby, A.D. 1628. Ed. Bruce, J. Camden Soc. Publ. XCVI. 1868.
At Scandaroon on 11 June, Digbys two ships gallantly defeated a number of French and Venetian vessels. Digby beguiled the voyage out by reading Spenser. See his Observations on the Ninth Canto of the Second Book of Spensers Faerie Queene, 1644. He also wrote Observations upon Religio Medici, 1645; frequently rptd. with Sir Thomas Brownes book.
Private Memoirs of Sir Kenelm Digby, Gentleman of the Bedchamber to King Charles the First. Written by himself. Now first published from the original Manuscript, with an introductory Memoir. [By Nicholas, A. N.] 1827.
Exchange, the. The Famous and Wonderful Recovery of a Ship of Bristol called the Exchange, from the Turkish Pirates of Argier. 1622. Rptd. in Stuart Tracts.
This narrative, with an Elizabethan combination of piety, ferocity and business, shows how John Rawlins, the pilot, and others, after slaughtering about forty Turks and Moors, brought the ship home safe to Plymouth in February 1622.
Fairfax, Thomas, Lord (161271). Short Memorials of Thomas, Lord Fairfax. Written by himself. 1699. Published by Bryan Fairfax. With short Memorials of Some Things to be cleared during my Command in the Army.
A clear account of military matters belonging to the years 16424 and 16458 respectively, and a truthful portrait of Fairfax himselfsincere, modest, but incapable of asserting his personal authority at critical times.
(Fiennes, Nathaniel) (160869). Anglia Rediviva; Englands Recovery: being the History of the Motions, Actions and Successions of the Army under the immediate Conduct of His Excellency Sir Thomas Fairfax, Captain-General of all the Parliaments forces in England. Compiled for the public good by Joshua Sprigg. 1647. New ed. Oxford, 1854.
This work, which, though bearing the name of Fairfaxs chaplain, was, according to Walker, really written by Colonel Fiennes, goes up to the reduction of Oxford in 1646. It is an unctuous apologia for Fairfax and a passionate defence of the army, profuse in its praise of the action of both.
Fleetwood, George (160567). Letter to his Father, giving an account of the Battle of Lutzen and the Death of Gustavus Adolphus. Ed. Egerton, Sir Philip de Malpas Gray, in Camden Miscellany, Camden. Soc. Publ. XXXIX. 1847.
Goodman, Godfrey (bishop of Gloucester) (15831656). The Court of James the First: to which are added Letters illustrative of the Personal History of the most distinguished characters in the Court of that Monarch and his predecessors. Now first publ. from the original MS. by Brewer, J. S. 2 vols. 1839.
The author, after suffering imprisonment for supposed papistical opinions, two years before his death (1655) dedicated a theological work to Cromwell. Though not altogether favourable to the foreign policy of James I, and opposed to his claim of absolute ecclesiastical supremacy, he treats the king sympathetically and with warm approval of his maintenance of a close connection between church and state.
Newcome, R. A Memoir of Gabriel Goodman, Dean of Westminster, and Godfrey Goodman, Bishop of Gloucester, nephew to the above. Ruthin, 1825.
Halkett, Lady, The Autobiography of. Ed. Nichols, J. G. Camden Soc. Publ. 1875.
Reaches from 162255, though the authoress survived the restoration for nearly thirty years, and is largely concerned with the love affairs of the writer, who, as Ann Murray, daughter of the preceptor and secretary of Charles I (afterwards provost of Eton) was attached to colonel Barnfield, a prominent royalist agent, but in the end was happily married to Sir James Halkett. A simple and sincere narrative, followed by religious meditations.
Hall, Joseph (bishop of Norwich) (15741656). Hard Measures. Written by himself upon his Impeachment of High Crimes for Defending the Church of England. 1647. Rptd. 1710. Concerning the imprisonment of the bishops in December 1641 and their subsequent troubles.
Herbert, Sir Thomas (160682), groom of the chamber to his majesty. Memoirs of the two last years of the reign of King Charles I. To which is added, A particular Account of the Funeral of the King, in a letter from Sir Thomas Herbert to Sir William Dugdale. 3rd ed. 1815.
After returning from his travels, Herbert accompanied his relative, Philip earl of Pembroke, to Newcastle in the service of the parliament, but there attached himself to the king. His account of the confinement, trial, death and funeral of Charles I is full of interest.
A Relation of some yeares travaile, begunne anno 1626. Into Afrique and the greater Asia, especially the Territories of the Persian Monarchie: and some parts of the Orientall Indies, and Iles adjacent. Of their Religion, Language, Habit, Discent, Ceremonies, and other matters concerning them. 1634. Rptd. by Harris, J., in Navigantium atque Itinerantium Bibliotheca, vol. 1, 1705; and by Moore, J. H., in A new and complete Collection of voyages and travels, vol. II, 1785.
Holles, Denzil, Lord (15991680). Memoirs from 1641 to 1648. 1699. Rptd. by Maseres, F., in Select Tracts relating to the Civil Wars, vol. 1, 1815.
These memoirs, written in Normandy, after Holless expulsion from the House of Commons by the army in August 1647, show forth his spleen in vehement accusations against the dominant party and its leader Cromwell, although the writer maintains that nothing comes by chance and that the ways of God are unsearchable. At the time of his death, Holles was engaged in a controversy on the right of bishops to sit in parliament, of which after his death in 1680, part was published in:
His Remains; being a Second Letter to a Friend, concerning the Judicature of the Bishops in Parliament, in the Vindication of what he wrote in his First; and in Answer to a Book
The Rights of the Bishops to judge in Capital Cases in Parliament, cleared etc. With part of his Intended Answer to a Second Tractate on the Bishops Right to Vote in Parliament etc. 1682.
Hutchinson, Lucy. Memoirs of the Life of Colonel Hutchinson, Governor of Nottingham Castle and town, with original anecdotes of many of his contemporaries, and a summary review of public affairs. Publ. from the original MS. To which is prefixed the Life of Mrs Hutchinson written by herself, a fragment. 1806. Re-ed. with additions by Huskinson, E., 1839; for Bohns Standard Library, 1846; by Firth, C. H., 2 vols., 1885 and 1906; by Child, H. (Dryden House Memoirs), 1904; and by Hayes, Helen Kendrick .
On the Principles of the Christian Religion. Ed. Hutchinson, Julius, 1817.
Mrs. Hutchinsons MS. translation of the first six books of Lucretius is in the Brit. Museum; her translation of part of the Aeneid is in the possession of another descendant of her husbands family.
James I. Secret History of the Reign of King James I. Written not later than 1615, and ptd. with the autobiography of Sir Simonds dEwes (q.v).
Dark account of the Overbury scandals, and Villierss rise into power.
Laud, archbishop. The History of the Troubles and Tryal of
William Laud Archbishop of Canterbury. Wrote by himself, during his Imprisonment in the Tower. To which is prefixed The Diary of his own Life, faithfully and entirely Published from the original copy. With Preface by Wharton, H. 1695.
Ludlow, Edmund, The Memoirs of. Vevey, 1698. Ed. Firth, C. H. 2 vols. 1894.
These memoirs were probably first edited by Littlebury, Isaac, who suppressed passages reflecting on Sir A. A. Cooper, afterwards earl of Shaftesbury. The appendix to Firths edition contains, among other documentary evidence, letters by Ludlow concerning his services in Ireland (16514) and his command at home (June 1659 to January 1660). His exile after the restoration virtually lasted for more than thirty years; but his Memoirs, probably written between 1663 and 1673, came to an end with the year 1672.
For tracts against the Memoirs see ante, p. 256.
Manningham, John, of the Middle Temple, and of Bradbourne, Kent, Barrister-at-Law, the Diary of, 16023. Ed. from the original MS. by Bruce, J. Camden Soc. Publ. XCIX. 1868.
Monro, colonel Robert. Monro his Expedition with the worthy Scots Regiment (called MKeyes Regiment) levied in August 1626
. Discharged in severall Duties and Observations of service; first under the magnanimous King of Denmark; during his warres against the Emperour; afterward under the Invincible King of Swede, during his lifetime; and since, under the Directour-Generall, the Rex-chancellor Oxensterne and his Generalls. Collected and gathered together at spare-houres, by Colonel Robert Monro
for the use of all worthie Cavaliers favouring the laudable profession of Armes. To which is annexed the Abridgement of Exercise, and divers practical Observations, for the younger Officer his Consideration; ending with the Souldiers Meditations going on service. 1637.
Monroe, major-general Robert (d. 1680). A Full Relation of the Late Expedition Of the Right Honourable, the Lord Monroe, Major-generall of all the Protestant Forces in the Province of Uulster. With their severall marches and skirmishes with the bloody Irish Rebels and what Towns and Castles they have taken. Published by Authority. 1644.
A Letter of great Consequence; Sent by the Honorable, Robert Lord Monro, out of the Kingdom of Ireland, to the Honorable, The Committee for the Irish affairs in England, Concerning the state of the Rebellion there. Together with the relation of a dangerous Plot, laid with the consent of the Queen for the Revival of Religion and overthrow of the three Kingdoms, found among the papers taken on the Earl of Antrim. Ordered by the Commons in Parliament, That this Letter be forthwith printed and published: H: Elsynge, Cler. Parl. D. Com. 1643.
A True Relation Of the proceedings of the Scottish Armie now in Ireland, By three Letters. The First Sent from Generall Major Monroe to Generall Leslie [Earl of Leven] his Excellence [dated the 13 May 1642].
(Morgan, major-general Sir Thomas?) (d. 1679?) A true and just Relation of the Progress of Major-General Sir Thomas Morgan in France and Flanders with the Six Thousand English, in the years 1657 and 1658, at the taking of Dunkirk and other important places. As it was delivered by the General himself. 1699. Rptd. in Stuart Tracts.